Quantum Internet and E-Governance: A Futuristic Perspective

Quantum Internet and E-Governance: A Futuristic Perspective

Manan Dhaneshbhai Thakkar (U. V. Patel College of Engineering, Ganpat University, India) and Rakesh D. Vanzara (U. V. Patel College of Engineering, Ganpat University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2253-0.ch006

Abstract

We are leaving in the era where almost everyone in the world uses internet for the communication over social media site, shopping, E-commerce, online transaction and many more. The exponential growth in usage of internet resulted in security related challenges. Since last several years, traditional cryptography algorithms are found working well. Evolution of quantum computer and its high computing capability can break existing cryptography algorithms. To handle the security constraints, this chapter provides details on evolution of quantum cryptography, components involved to design network architecture for quantum internet, quantum key exchange mechanism and functionality wise stages for quantum internet. This chapter also includes challenges involved in evolution of quantum internet. Further, chapter also contains the details on e-governance, challenges in e-governance and solution using quantum cryptography.
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Introduction

Quantum cryptography, is the way of encrypting messages by applying principles of quantum mechanism, in contrast with the traditional cryptography mechanism to encrypt the messages by applying the mathematical function over actual message (Maria Korolov, Doug Drinkwater, 2019). Main purpose of this quantum cryptography is to encrypt message in such a way that no outsider recipient can even read that message. Quantum communication is to be considered more secured than any existing information relay system. If quantum communications were like sending a letter, entangled photons are like the envelope, they carry the message and keep it secure. It is expected that by 2030 (Sophia Chen, 2017), quantum communications will spread almost in all countries and that would be an era of quantum Internet. It means, all kind of communications (i.e. multimedia, text, voice) would happen by means of quantum signals compared to traditional digital signal (i.e. 0 and 1).

Quantum Internet provides new Internet technologies to us to solve the tasks which are impossible to achieve over classical Internet (Kimble, H. Jeff, 2008). As it’s a new technology which is yet to explore fully, thus we cannot expect all the sectors making its usage initially. But, it provides good enough applications containing security related concern over Internet, to justify its importance. Basic elements of quantum Internet do not look much different from a classical one (Vesna Monojlovic, 2017). The way classical Internet is having one of component as end node, this quantum Internet also needed end node. But, that end node should support quantum Internet. So, as a node we cannot use normal laptop, phone or computer, but we need to make use of quantum computer. The way we have switch type of component in classical Internet as an intermediate point to establish connection, for the quantum Internet we need kind of switch which is capable to transmit qubits. Table-I depicts the comparison of classical and quantum Internet.

Table 1.
Comparison between classical internet and quantum internet
Classical InternetQuantum Internet
• End node: traditional computer, phone, laptop• End node: Quantum system
• Switch• Quantum switch
• Repeater• Quantum repeater
• Data in the form of digital signal with combination of 0 and 1• Data in the form of qubits
• Threat of cyber attack• Secure

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