Relevance of the Use of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Pedagogical Delivery: An Overview

Relevance of the Use of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Pedagogical Delivery: An Overview

Monsuru Babatunde Muraina (Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8162-0.ch008
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Abstract

This chapter examined the relevance of the use of instructional materials or teaching aids in teaching and pedagogical delivery. This is because of the importance that is attached to the use of instructional materials in influencing students' learning outcomes in schools. The chapter elucidated the meaning and concept of teaching within the pedagogical context. It further explained the concept of instructional materials and the various types and their relevance. The principles for the selection of instructional materials and guidelines for the use of instructional materials were discussed. The various problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials for teaching and pedagogical delivery were highlighted. Lastly, recommendations such as the need for school administrators and government to provide instructional materials and to send teachers to conferences, workshops and seminars in order to develop in them instructional materials improvisation skills and mechanisms for maintenance culture were proffered.
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Introduction

Teaching in this modern period is increasingly becoming more complex and technical to be effectively actualized with traditional tools alone (Anyanwu, 2003). The development in modern technology has made available a wide range of instructional materials to supplement teachers’ efforts in teaching-learning process. More importantly, the curricula of the modern subjects call for extensively and frequently combined use of traditional with convectional materials in teaching-learning process (Abolade, 2001). Effective teaching and pedagogical delivery depends majorly on cordial relationship and free flow of communication between the teachers and the students. Verbal instruction, which is seen as the easiest form of instructional and teaching delivery system apart from real experience is always very abstract (Adeyanju, 2003). Since students in schools are from varied cultural and socio-cultural background and training, teachers thus need instructional materials or teaching aids to help them communicate and mix effectively and hence cope with students’ needs based on their abilities and potentialities (Edward, 2002).

Teaching in secondary schools can only be effective through the use of some instructional materials that guide the teacher in explaining topics to students effectively and efficiently (Ofune, 2001). However, instructional aids are not ends in themselves but they are means intended to serve a specific instructional purpose or function (Meduabum, 2004). Teachers at various Age, right from the Stone Age and Dark Ages down to the Knowledge Age or Information Age had felt the need to make use of instructional materials/aids to produce better results in the teaching-learning process (Olumorin, 2001). However, many of these instructional materials and equipments are still foreign and rarely used in our school system today.

Teaching aids both in print and those of audio and visual types are of fundamental importance to the success of teacher education programmes. Modern teaching-learning demand that the necessary facilities, well qualified teachers, suitable texts and instructional materials are needed to achieve the aims and objectives of teaching at all levels. Provision or presence of these facilities and materials is of great importance to enhance better and effective learning in schools (Ralph, 1999)

Instructional materials of the present secondary schools level include demonstration charts that contain tables, schedules, and curves. They are being used as instructional aids in our secondary school now. The government and private institutions in Nigeria are not left out in the decision of building solid education system. The need for instructional aids at secondary school level is supported by Sections 4-23 of the Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE), (FRN, 2004). The NPE recommended that each state and local government authority should establish Teachers’ Resources Centre, where teachers will meet for discussion, investigation, study workshops and conferences. These centres shall also be used for the development and testing of teaching materials.

Despite this, it is interesting to note that teachers are almost ignorant of the availability and the relevance of instructional materials in the schools. Teachers find it difficult to use the instructional aids effectively in imparting knowledge to the students. The immediate effect of this is that it leads to poor performance of students in both internal and external examinations (Ololube, 2006, 2008).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Pedagogy: It refers to the principles, practice and profession of teaching. It can also be regarded as the art or science of teaching, education and instructional methods.

Instructional Materials: Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities. They are whatever materials used in the process of instruction. They are a broad range of resource which can be used to facilitate effective instruction. They indicate a systematic way of designing, carrying out and employing the total process of learning and communication and employing human and non-human resources to bring out a more meaningful and effective instruction. They are human and non-human material that a teacher uses to pass information to the learner in his/her class.

Principles: These refer to a guiding rule for personal actions in the classroom

Learning: It can be defined as a mental activities by means of which knowledge, skill attitude are acquired, retained and utilized. It is defined it as changes in the particular form, change in behaviour tendency, resulting in relatively permanent practice. It involves that the changes, which occurs as a result of reinforced practice that gives new meaning and orientation. This leads to acquisition of new skills, behaviour tendency that is permanent.

Teaching: Teaching is an activity aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a method that is morally and pedagogically acceptable. It involves a teacher, a learner, content in form of knowledge facts information and skill to be imparted a deliberate intention on the part of the learners to learn, and finally a method that respects the learners’ cognitive integrity and freedom of choice.

Learning Outcomes: These refer to the display of knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subjects’ teachers.

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