Simulation of MH370 Actual Route Using Multiobjective Algorithms

Simulation of MH370 Actual Route Using Multiobjective Algorithms

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1920-2.ch005


This chapter delivers the mathematical model to retrieve the definite route of MH370 and its debris, which is based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The chapter shows that the appropriate short route for Captian Zaharie to murder-suicide is the Gulf of Thailand, not in the Southern Indian Ocean, which is specified by 1000 iterations and 100 fitness. Needless to say that the MH370 path reclaimed from Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite data was not delivering the real scenario of MH370's vanishing, which is proving the multiobjective genetic algorithm.
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The Flight MH370 ended in the Southern Indian Ocean as based on the measurements made by the British company Inmarsat. Nevertheless, Zweck (2016) argued in support of Inmarsat by using Doppler frequency shift, trigonometry, time and location of pings. In other words, Inmarsat’s radar tracking approach and data analysis have not yet assured each one that they are ironclad (Finkleman, 2014 and Chen et al., 2015). Conversely, during flight, the MH370 exploited satellite communications contacts to trade information with ground stations through the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) (Wikipedia, (2018).

Despite the fact most of the functionality of ACARS was immobilized earlier in the MH370, for six hours, post the last radar communicated with the Flight Mh370 and ground station traded a sequence of dumpy memos, which are well known as pings. Indeed, the Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite transmitted these pings to a ground station in Perth, Australia. In this sense, the Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite was in a geosynchronous orbit in excess of the equator at longitude 64.5°E (Zweck, 2016). In this regard, the British satellite company Inmarsat engineers created mathematical approaches to define flight paths that greatest fit the Burst Timing Offset (BTO), and the Burst Frequency Offset (BFO). In this view, they are able to identify the Flight MH370 paths in addition to the search area in the Southern Indian Ocean. However, these efforts are challenged by changing the search area numerous times between 9th March and 26th June 2014 (Zweck, 2016). In other words, there are ambiguities in determining the particular location of the missing flight. On March 17th, 2014, the search was refocused to a region in the Southern Indian Ocean, about a 3000 km southwest of Perth, Australia. The search area, however, relocated an 800 km farther southwest of Perth, on October 8th, 2014. On the other hand, the exploration was postponed until January 17th, 2017. In October 2017, the final search area is believed to be at, approximately, 35.6°S 92.8°E. In January 2018, the search area based on these geographical references was continued by a private company of Ocean Infinity.

The important questions arise up: why was the search area changed several times? Did the Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite data regarding the Flight MH370 involve uncertainties? If the Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite data are accurate why the search teams cannot detect the flight ‘s fuselage and its debris? In fact, all the models reconstructed the Flight MH370 path and its debris trajectory movements are based on the information delivered from Inmarsat 3-F1 satellite data. Can the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on a genetic programming answer the above-mentioned questions?

Inmarsat 3-F1 Satellite Data

Inmarsat is the brief of “ International Maritime Satellite Organization Inmarsat” which was founded on July 16th, 1979, at the initiative of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and primarily had a standing of a federal organization. Herewith, the foremost goal of the launch of Inmarsat was to offer the marine vessels with steadfast broadcastings, predominantly for the development of vessel securities, which involved the communication of SOS signals. These signals are transmitted between other vessels and shore assistances, contact between crew followers and passengers with the shore service. Further, the main objective of Inmarsat is to guarantee the operation of maritime satellite communication system in harmony with the requests of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) (Venkatesan,2013; Santamarta,2014; Abdelsalam et al., 2017; Swanwick, 2017).

Inmarsat was initiated as a maritime telecommunications machinist. It is foremost exclusively-possessed constellations which are the Inmarsat-2 (I-2) and Inmarsat-3 (I-3) series. They were situated directly above the world’s ocean-lanes to develop four ocean districts: (i) West Atlantic Ocean Region, at 54° W;(ii) East Atlantic Ocean Region, at 15.5° E;(iii) East Indian Ocean Region, at 64°E; and (iv) Pacific Ocean Region, at 178° E (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Inmarsat Spot beams


Satellite Constellation Inmarsat contains 14 geostationary satellites. A unique aspect of geostationary satellites is its immovability above a directed position over the Equator. Herewith, this superficial immovability is accomplished via satellite spin sideways globular orbit corresponding to the equatorial plane, with an angular velocity equivalent to the momentum of the Earth revolving speed. In this regard, the orbital altitude makes approximately 35,786 km.

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