Social Entrepreneurship and Participatory Experiences of Service-Learning in University Business Training

Social Entrepreneurship and Participatory Experiences of Service-Learning in University Business Training

Luis Alfredo Bohórquez-Caldera (Universidad de San Buenaventura, Colombia)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2019-2.ch014

Abstract

The chapter presents a proactive analysis of the teaching of inclusive entrepreneurship based on the progress of an investigation. Theoretical development involves the concepts of entrepreneurship as opportunities management and inclusive entrepreneurship with pedagogy, didactics, pedagogical practice, and professional practice. From this conceptual framework, the idea of participatory experiences of service-learning and citizenship that is not yet an elaborate concept or idea, but rather, it is a construct with a strong pedagogical and didactic dimension that defines relevant horizons of action to consolidate from the curriculum, specific processes of professional training.
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Introduction

The text presents a proactive analysis of the teaching of inclusive entrepreneurship based on the progress of an investigation. Theoretical development involves the concepts of entrepreneurship as opportunities management (Stevenson, 1990) and inclusive entrepreneurship with pedagogy, didactics, pedagogical practice, and professional practice. From this conceptual framework, the idea of participatory experiences of service-learning and citizenship that is not yet an elaborate concept or idea, but rather, it is a construct with a strong pedagogical and didactic dimension that defines relevant horizons of action to consolidate from the curriculum, specific processes of professional training.

There is a concern today for the aging of the population throughout the world, especially in the wealthiest countries. In Europe, the elderly 65 are 19.4% of the population, that is, around 78 million people, and this trend is increasing at least 2.4 points every ten years (Maâlaoui, 2019). In the United States, the situation is not different; there, the number of older people exceeds that of those under 18 (Maâlaoui, 2019). Something similar occurs in some Asian countries such as Japan. This phenomenon is already being related to a decline or aging of the entrepreneurial spirit of the elderly. That is, there is concern because the entrepreneurial spirit is decreasing with age (Pilkova, Holienka, & Rehak, 2014) and because there is less and less linking of the young population in the labor market (Stypinska, Franke, & Myrczik (2019). Facing the problem may initially point to the improvement of the quality of life of older people (Pilkova, Holienka, & Rehak, 2014), but also, and with greater emphasis, to build new training strategies that guarantee a permanent renewal of the spirited entrepreneur to the extent that the population is aging. In this sense, university education becomes a possibility of solving this problem; that is, the formation of entrepreneurship, in this case, of social entrepreneurship, is a contribution to strengthening the spirit of entrepreneurship in the elderly and as management of business opportunities. (Stevenson, 1990).

That is, today, it is urgent to rethink the teaching of entrepreneurship and its application variants. Therefore, concerning this chapter, a theoretical balance that involves advances in an ongoing investigation is presented, which investigates about inclusive entrepreneurship that can be connected from university education to adult entrepreneurship.

Inclusive entrepreneurship is an innovative, inclusive intrapreneurship model that can boost the development of human capabilities (Max-Neef, 1993; Nussbaum, 2012) because it seeks to transform possibilities into skills (Taylor, 2015; Agudelo, 2011; Irizar, 2004; Audretsch, 2006; Varela, 2013; Gámez, 2013); and social entrepreneurship (Gámez & Cortés, 2018; Conde, 2014). The goal is to make entrepreneurship a participatory experience (Fernández, 2006) of service-learning in the perspective of Luna (2010), Martínez (2008), Cechi (2006) and Bohórquez (2013) whose foundation is the idea of volunteering as analyzed by Cabezas (2001) and Brugoni (2009). Service-learning experiences are susceptible to systematization for training purposes as investigated in the studies of Jara (2012), Barragán (2010, 2015), Amín, Usaquén, Pizarro, and Hernández (2016), Castillo, Gómez, Gutiérrez, Peñaranda, and Quesada (2016), Mancera, Martínez, Rodríguez, and Salazar (2017), and Zayas, Gozálvez, and Gracia (2019). Participatory service-learning experiences are also connected with citizens (Zayas, Gozálvez, & Gracia (2019) and to this extent, they can be planned to complement the objectives of university professional training. The teaching of inclusive entrepreneurship aims to innovate (Gómez & Calvo, 2011) from a pedagogical practice that manages to emancipate and develop the human being (Zuluaga et al., 2003, 2005; Quiceno, 2003a, 2003b, 2006), and in this sense the reflection has a propositive horizon.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Participatory Experiences: An academic strategy that works in a community context, especially one of marginality, to strengthen autonomous learning in communities that have not had the opportunity to enter an educational establishment. They make it possible to link the school or university with the territories and communities.

Popular Education: An educational approach developed to expand rural schooling and to link people, especially out-of-school adults, to make them literate.

Inclusive Entrepreneurship: A form of entrepreneurship that links actors of different types to produce social capital.

Entrepreneurship: Creation of successful and sustainable companies and business opportunities.

Systematization of Experiences: Methodological technique developed from popular education in the context of Latin America to recover widespread knowledge.

Critical Pedagogies: An approach to pedagogy developed in Latin America based on the thinking of Paolo Freire and his proposal to educate the poor and thus dignify them, emancipate them and link them to processes of human development.

Community Pedagogies: An approach to pedagogy that recovers widespread knowledge in out-of-school contexts to educate from “below,” that is, from an inclusive perspective.

Social Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship, whose strength is to create business opportunities for development and social welfare.

Adult Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship that is developed in older people and serves as a basis for strengthening entrepreneurship experiences in younger entrepreneurs.

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