The Globalized World With Different Perceptions, Dimensions, and Problems

The Globalized World With Different Perceptions, Dimensions, and Problems

Aysun Yilmaztürk (Balikesir University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7564-1.ch001

Abstract

Globalization refers to the integration of economic, social, political, cultural, and technological connections between countries. In this context, the concept of globalization includes every country and every social structure in the world with all its aspects. For this reason, the global influence of globalization can be said. Today, the irrefutable reality of the changing and transforming characteristics of the globalization process is accepted by the states, and determinations are made in this sense and measures are taken in the sense of negative effects. This change also affects international public finance. The common problems of the global world that arise in changing public finances are desired to be solved. In this chapter, different perceptions and dimensions of the phenomenon of globalization are examined. In this context, perceptions of globalization have been confused, and the dimensions of globalization and the problems brought about by these dimensions have been revealed.
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Globalization

Various theories and concepts have been developed to explain certain periods in the historical process of societies. The history of globalization, which is one of the popular concepts of today’s world where international relations are becoming more and more intense, goes back a long way. Social, economic, political and cultural structures have been constantly changing since the Industrial Revolution of 1776. The Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire constituted the examples of globalization before the 19th century. In the 19th century, there were colonial peripheries linked to colonial metropoles such as England during the period where colonial empires were established. The development of the automation network with the industrial revolution has accelerated the globalization process.

Although it goes long way back, globalization has become a key concept that emerged in the 1960s, frequently used in the 1980s and considered important by scientists after the 1990s. The increase in the use of the concept after the 1980s depended on the integration process that happened in almost all areas due to technological developments and the influence of some factors. The concept of globalization, which has become popular since the 1990s, has begun to be questioned by the world thinkers, especially in America, since these years. As a matter of fact, Malcolm Waters, one of the important early writers on globalization, wrote that in 1994, the entire “globalization” books in the American Library of Congress were published and numbered 34 after 1987 and this number was raised to 284 in February 2000 (Waters, 2001, p.25).

According to Malcolm Waters, who states that the term “global” has been used as an adjective that describes the whole world for over 400 years, globalization should be dealt with using a multidimensional approach as an integrated economic, political and cultural process. In this multidimensional theory, globalization has been developing throughout a historical process and it has shown its real character suddenly and very rapidly since 1990s. Since the modernization process that started in the 16th century, economic integrations, international relations, cultural relations and cognitive processes have developed rapidly over time. Now is the moment when these developments are felt most severely.

All authors, except two, agree that Marshall McLuhan is the first person to develop the concept (Yusufoğlu, 2005, p.13) In the books he wrote in 1960 and 1963, M. McLuhan assessed the developments in the field of communication and indicated that the world was turning into an electronic global village (McLuhan, 2014). McLuhan did not include concepts such as globalization and globality in his work, but he used the concept of “global” as “global embrace”, “global village” and “global armistice” (Bülbül, 2004, p.26). After a long period of infusion or incubation in the field of communication, the term globalization has become the term most frequently used by popular media and all social sciences, especially by international relations (Çiftçi, 2015, p.28).

Although globalization is defined similarly by different authors, there are some arguments on its content (Hablemitoğlu, 2005, p.40). It is beneficial to take a look at the arguments of some authors considered to be theorists or actor thinkers of globalization, especially those of Anthony Giddens, Immanuel Wallerstein, Zygmunt Bauman, Ronald Robertson, Malcolm Waters and David Harvey.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Global Economic Problems: As an important global economic problem in the world, income inequality, poverty, economic crises, quotas for international trade, tax havens are examples.

Global System: Global system is an economic and political construct in which capital, management, employment, knowledge, natural resources and organizations are fully internationalized. The main determinants of the global system are nation states, multinational corporations, international institutions, and non-governmental organizations.

Globalization: Globalization is defined as the expansion and development of worldwide economic, social, political, and cultural relations. This definition includes all elements such as different geographies, cultural formation, economic-social and political structure, state government, goods and services, capital accumulation, technological infrastructure, and lifestyles, regardless of physical distance. Globalization is a structural transformation process which is based on the principle of mutual dependence and which increases the level of communication, interaction, and relationships among all these elements.

Social-Cultural Globalization: Advances in technology and communication increase the interaction between individuals and societies living in different geographies. Social-cultural dimension of globalization refers to the movement and spread of ideas, knowledge and individuals at a global scale.

International Institutions: It refers to all kinds of mergers that operate at international level, which do not have commercial purpose, concern more than one state, but do not have any state characteristics. Such as the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the North Atlantic Pact and the World Bank.

Global Social Problems: Other problems caused by social globalization may include population density, rapid population growth, increased elderly population, difficulties in accessing resources, migration and refugee problem, global terrorism, increased health problems due to reasons such as pollution and epidemics.

Technology Globalization: The globalization of technology removed physical limits in areas such as communication, transportation and security, increased mutual interaction and altered the interaction of time, space, and power.

Global Environmental Problems: Major environmental problems including droughts, desertification, climate change, flood disasters, greenhouse effect, endangered rainforests, unplanned urbanization, air pollution, acid rain, marine pollution and nuclear wastes cause irreversible damage to the ecosystem and these environmental problems are becoming globalized.

Financial Globalization: Financial globalization refers to the removal of barriers and restrictions on short- and long-term capital flows and the integration of domestic markets with the world markets.

Political Globalization: The globalization of political refers to the absence of the absolute sovereignty of a state’s political borders over a certain area as well as increased interaction between the systems of government and increased external intervention and interaction on the basis of democracy, non-governmental organizations, human rights, and freedoms.

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