The Use of the RRIR ICT Integration Model as an Instructional Planning Tool

The Use of the RRIR ICT Integration Model as an Instructional Planning Tool

Leesha Nicole Roberts
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5557-6.ch006
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


This chapter introduces the retrieve, revise, implement, and review (RRIR) ICT integration model, created by the author, to assist teachers in systematically planning lessons in information communication technologies (ICT). A case study design was used to collect data in two parts from Teachers in 30 primary schools in Trinidad and Tobago. The first part required the teachers to use the RRIR model log book for one school term. The second part used focus group sessions to inquire about the teachers' perceptions, pedagogical changes, and the factors influencing their decision to continue using the RRIR model log book. The data revealed four broad themes: support for pedagogical innovation, adaptability and intentional instructional changes, approaches to ICT integration, and school leadership. Overall, the teachers disclosed that the RRIR ICT integration model allowed them to plan their ICT integrated lessons reflectively. Concerning the school context, further research is needed to elucidate its impact since teachers reflected on barriers to the ICT integration process in schools.
Chapter Preview


The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) has become a typical educational change process in classrooms globally. Various country studies have all indicated that using a customized systematic instructional design model can assist schools in sustainably integrating ICT into teaching at the classroom level (Aluko, 2017; BECTA, 2008; Paulino, Mouta, Ferreira, Andrade, & Quintela, 2015). In Trinidad and Tobago, there are national policies from as far as 2002 that state teachers should be integrating ICT in their teaching (GORTT, 2012, 2013, 2017). However, while there is a presence of ICT in the primary schools, there is a disconnect between what is stated in the national policies and what is occurring in the primary school classroom. One main obstacle is the lack of an ICT integration model to guide teachers’ when they attempt to include ICT into their teaching.

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the use of the Retrieve, Revise, Implement and Review (RRIR) ICT Integration Model, a customized instructional design model that focused on the contextual factors of the school environment during the integration of ICT in the classroom over a school term. This research is the second phase of a Mixed Method study where the first phase of the study consisted of identifying the school context and the factors that teachers perceive affected the integration of ICT in the classroom. For this chapter, the term “phase” refers to the quantitative and qualitative strands of the study, while the word “part” refers to the components of the data collected within a phase. Additionally, the term “ICT” refers to various technologies, such as the internet, computers, audio, and visual systems.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ICT Integration Model: Refers to an information communication technology (ICT) exemplar that is created to guide a teacher preparing a lesson that integrates ICT systematically.

Systematic Planning Process: Is the approach of planning instruction in an organized manner that is focused on the different instructional parts and how they work together to increase effective learning outcomes.

Sustainable Education Reform: Is defined as reorganizing processes within an education system at the school level in a way that can be effectively and efficiently reproduced, disseminated, and maintained over a period of time.

Specific Learning Need: Refers to the gap between a learner’s knowledge and the knowledge they need to attain in order to complete a particular learning outcome.

School Leadership: Refers to academic staff at a school in the position to promote a vision that improves the quality and learning outcomes of the student body. This leadership is demonstrated by initiating innovative practices and strategies within the school by positively engaging teachers, students, and parents.

National Policy: Is a government document that outlines a broad course of action focused on sustainable country development over a period of time.

Reflective Practitioner: Is a teacher that practices the process of reflection prior, during, and after teaching a classroom lesson to improve their teaching repertoire continuously.

Intentional Instructional Change: Is a deliberately planned instructional change that is intended to elicit positive learning outcomes.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: