Tourism, Internet Usage, and Safety

Tourism, Internet Usage, and Safety

Gülsüm Akarsu
Copyright: © 2025 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-7366-5.ch042
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Information and communication technologies have gained further importance due to digitalisation in many areas including tourism and security. This chapter aims to analyse interrelationships between tourist arrivals, crime rates, and internet usage by employing panel data techniques and using data on 23 countries from 2008 to 2017. Findings indicate one-way causality from internet usage to tourist arrivals and crime rates. Results also show a high level of persistency in tourist arrivals and moderate persistency in crime and theft. Furthermore, internet usage and population density were found to increase tourist arrivals. The author also found that inflation may increase crime and theft. In conclusion, countries should take urgent steps to decrease inflation to ensure a safer country and they can employ information and communication technologies for security improvement and tourism development.
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In today's World, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become indispensable for daily life. Digitalization has become one of the primary goals in the development plan of many countries to adapt to the evolving World. The United Nations, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, has also focused on the essentiality of ICTs for inclusive economic growth and sustainable development of countries under Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 9 (Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation) directly and SDGs related to climate change, education, health, gender equality, and private sector development (European Union, 2022). From 2008 to 2017, internet users increased from 23% to 46% of the World population (The World Bank, 2022a). On the other hand, in most countries, the tourism sector may gain further importance by transforming industrial-dominated economies into service-based ones. The World Travel and Tourism Council’s latest report shows that the sector has begun to recover after the Covid-19 pandemic in 2021 and is expected to grow at 5.8% per annum exceeding the economic growth of 2.7% between 2022 and 2032 globally. According to the World Bank World Development Indicators, World international tourism receipts have increased by nearly 45% between 2008 and 2017, whereas World international tourist arrivals have increased by 28.4%. From 2008 to 2017, the share of international tourism receipts from total exports increased from 5.7% to 7.1% in the World.

Information is an essential factor affecting the long value chain which characterizes the tourism sector (Lee et al., 2021). Information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure is expected to contribute to the tourism development of a country as tourists can quickly obtain instant information related to tourism destinations through websites and mobile applications (Nadeem et al., 2020). Moreover, information and communication technologies contribute to the competitiveness and functioning of businesses by increasing the efficiency and quality of management procedures and transactions through innovation and collaboration (Bayrakcı & Özcan, 2022). Therefore, ICT infrastructure has become much more critical for the tourism sector due to the changing trends in this sector, as Nadeem et al. (2020) highlighted. The tourism sector has also been affected by digital transformation. In this context, new trends have been introduced in the sector, such as digital tourism and e-tourism. Value chains and processes can be digitalized by using ICTs in the tourism sector, as noticed by Gruescu, Nanu and Tanasie (2009), which provide an online presence of destinations, effective tourism management, empowered networking, dynamic personalization of value-added services, value chain expansions, and easy, direct, and affordable access to all customers (Adeola & Evans, 2019; Adeola & Evans, 2020). In the future, artificial intelligence- and virtual tourism-based applications can spread very rapidly for the development of the tourism sector (Kumar & Kumar, 2019). However, because of commoditization as an infrastructure, opportunity costs associated with information and communication technological investment, peer effect and time-lagging for adjustment, these technologies may lead to productivity decline, known as the information technologies' productivity paradox. (Lee et al., 2021). The dynamic effect of ICT can be considered, as it may take some time for the desired effect of ICTs, as suggested by Lee et al. (2021).

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