Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology

Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology

Ferenc Pongracz
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-292-3.ch011
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Intraoperative transfer of the implant and prosthesis planning in dentistry is facilitated by drilling templates or active, image-guided navigation. Minimum invasion concept of surgical interaction means high clinical precision with immediate load of prosthesis. The need for high-quality, realistic visualization of anatomical environment is obvious. Moreover, new elements of functional modelling appear to gain ground. Accordingly, future trend in computerized dentistry predicts less use of CT (computer tomography) or DVT (digital volume tomography) imaging and more use of 3D visualization of anatomy (laser scanning of topography and various surface reconstruction techniques). Direct visualization of anatomy during surgery revives wider use of active navigation. This chapter summarizes latest results on developing software tools for improving imaging and graphical modelling techniques in computerized dental implantology.
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Graphical Modelling

Data Sources

Conventional (CT) and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) are generally used for 3 dimensional dental imaging. Recent results have controversial results regarding optimization of image characteristics (artifacts reduction versus density resolution) by using CT and CBCT technologies (Humpries et al, 2006, Katsumata et al, 2007). In our studies the patient imaging data are read in from both CT and CBCT sequences and stored as volumetric model (Xoran Technologies: i-CAT 3D Dental Imaging, GE Medical Systems: HiSpeed NX/i). Reslicing algorithm is frequently included to generate slice view in arbitrary cutting plane orientation. Bone surface models are created by isosurface raytracing algorithm or marching cubes algorithm. Mesh surfaces can be imported for adding gips model topography and realistic model of implants. The surface models can be clipped to see interaction of surfaces with volumetric data and visualize the details of interocclusal relationships.

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