What Is Cloud Computing?

What Is Cloud Computing?

Saadia Karim (Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Pakistan) and Tariq Rahim Soomro (Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Pakistan)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 27
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1294-4.ch001
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Cloud computing is a distributed environment for multiple organizations to use remotely and get high scalability, reliability on anytime, anywhere, and pay-as-you-go concepts. An organization has to create data centres to store, manage, and process the information to achieve benefits from data and make decisions. Cloud gives organizations a successful approach that leads to profit without maintaining the cost of data centres and technical staff to manage the services. Cloud has different types of architectures, types of clouds, and cost packages for using the cloud. These services can be scaled up or down when required by an organization. Cloud has unbeatable future because IT world is acquiring it and giving a boost to their businesses. Many cloud providers are using it and the remaining are moving to cloud. Cloud computing also gives birth to edge computing, fog computing, and many more zero downtime solutions.
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History Of The Cloud Computing

The cloud computing was born through the cycle of different practices done for storing, processing and connecting the computer to the Internet (García & Cusumano, 2006). The cloud computing concept gets on track since the 1960s, when the first time John McCarthy initiates the use of a time-sharing mainframe computer (Systems Kerridge Commercial, 2016) (Borko Furht, 2010). Later on, ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) developed by J.C.R. Licklider in 1969, the straight prototype to the Internet. Licklider promoted unified and unlimited ease of access to data and programs (“Cloud Computing History timeline | Timetoast timelines,” n.d.) (“Cloud Computing and its Evolution Over Time 1969 to 2015,” n.d.). In the 1970s, IBM released full time-sharing operating system name IBM VM, which has an admin panel that can control the activities of different environments to be present on a single physical machine, this upgrades the level of 50s-60s time-sharing system. Such more platforms as Cambridge CTSS, Multics (on GE hardware), and the UNIX ports use the full time-sharing solutions. This change enables the telecommunication industry to take interest in time-sharing solutions, and initiate Virtual Private Network (VPN) and Web 2.0 evolution (García & Cusumano, 2006) (“Cloud Computing History timeline | Timetoast timelines,” n.d.) (“Cloud Computing and its Evolution Over Time 1969 to 2015,” n.d.) (Bojanova & Zhang, 2013) (Neto, 2011). The evolution of the network transforms traffic to a better network system. This advance shifting allows better network balance and high-speed bandwidth control. At that time (1997), “Cloud Computing” was coined by the University of Texas Professor Ramnath Chellappa as a new “computing paradigm”, where computing borders are determined by a financial basis rather than technical limits (Ramnath Chellappa, 1997). Cloud computing becomes a hot solution for different organizations, like Salesforce.com in 1999. They presented enterprise applications solutions to end customers by Web portal. Salesforce.com improves the application over the Internet by delivering ISVs (Independent Software Vendors) solution to customers. The historical timeline of cloud computing (Agarwal, 2017) is shown in Figure 1 below with the future working of the cloud.

Figure 1.

History of cloud computing


Key Terms in this Chapter

Data Analyzer: Is a process of cleaning the data using analytical tools. Collection of data from various sources is gathered and analyzed to make a proper decision. Some methods are business intelligence, data mining, decision support system, and text mining.

Ubiquitous: Means it seems to be everywhere. It is a term used in the business world for having the same technology used in all companies.

Virtual private network (VPN): Is a programming method that encrypts the public internet connection to a secure private network. VPN gives benefit over the public infrastructure by securing the resource to be used on sharing.

Edge Computing: Is referring to the infrastructure that is present close to the original source of data and edge is develop for the solution to an enterprise environment. The edge technique is far away from the centralized cloud structure because of this data lost is very much less in this environment.

Middleware: Was introduced in 1968 but get a boost in the 1980s, as software that links/band two applications together. It makes life easier for a developer. For example, newly created application band together with a legacy application. Its services are beyond the capacity of the operating system.

Fog Computing: Is created by Cisco company. It is a decentralized architecture between data source and cloud. Fog is similar to Edge computing, but fog gives benefits and power access of cloud to the users.

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Is a collection of services provided to communicate with each other.

Internet of Things (IoT): Is a term used to connect different devices through the internet. IoT gives life to electronic devices by embedding sensors, internet connectivity in them. These devices are automatically controlled or remotely operate according to built-in functions.

Quality of Services (QoS): Is a technique used for managing the data. It reduces the loss of packet, dormancy, frequency rate, delay, and jitter over the network.

Green Computing: Refers to the building of computer and resources in such a manner that an eco-friendly environment will be created, which reduces the carbon footprint of computers and resource use by them from the environment.

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