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What is Refugee

Multidisciplinary Approach to Entrepreneurship Education for Migrants
Forced migrant, a person fleeing from armed conflict or persecution; entitled to specific, guaranteed rights under international law. Due to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, a refugee is outside the country of his or her nationality, unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country.
Published in Chapter:
Religion and Spirituality Empowering Female Refugee Entrepreneurship
Laura Dryjanska (Biola University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2925-6.ch003
Abstract
Female refugees face additional challenges and obstacles on their path to entrepreneurship. This can be explained by intersectionality, taking into account compounded discrimination due to gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, and also religion. While conservative religious values and norms tend to be portrayed in a negative light, as hindering female leadership and fostering patriarchal views, this chapter assesses the positive impact that religion and spirituality may have for women refugee entrepreneurs. From the perspective of social psychology, it also considers how a comprehensive and creative training for female entrepreneurs should account for the demand-side, supply-side, soft skills, mental health, and religion and spirituality, preceded by a sound analysis of the context.
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Exploring Social Justice Issues Through Diverse Youth Literature: Erasing Prejudice One Book at a Time
A person who has had to leave a homeland and flee to another land, generally for political reasons, such as being unsafe or oppressed.
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From Insurgents to Custodians: Charting Taliban's Transition Towards ‘Governance' and ‘Institutionalization' in Afghanistan
An individual forced to flee their home country due to persecution, conflict, or natural disasters, seeking safety and asylum in another nation.
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Refugee Education: Insights From Intercultural Education
A refugee is a person forced to flee his or her own country because of fear of persecution, or fear of danger to his or her life. The 1951 Refugee Convention is the official text that defines a refugee.
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Promoting Culturally Sensitive Strategies to Enhance Physical Education among Immigrant and Refugee Youth
An individual who was forced to flee their home country due to persecution, war, or natural disasters.
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Displaced, Aging, and Cyborgs' Migration Through Borders and Beyond Borders: Belonging v Set Apart II
An individual forced to leave their country due to danger, seeking safety and protection in another nation.
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Social Work with Refugee Women: Narrative and “Empowerment”
A person who, due to a well-founded fear of persecution in relation to race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or adherence to a political opinion, is outside their home country and is either unable or unwilling to avail him or herself of the protection of that country.
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Analysis of The Economic Effects of Syrian Migration on Turkish Labor Market
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution or a natural disaster.
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Expanding Horizons for Interior Architecture: Accounting for Forced Migration
The term generally refers to displaced people who left their countries due to severe safety threats. The United Nations 1951 Convention is considered to convene the legal definition of the term.
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Decolonial, Feminist, and Antiracist Pedagogies: Opening Paths Toward Diversity Through Teacher Training
Person who has fled their country because their life, security or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances that have seriously disturbed public order.
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Informality and Informalization among Eritrean Refugees: Why Migration Does Not Provide a Lesson in Democracy
The category ‘refugee’ is first of all a legal label, referring to respective national law as well as to the international Geneva Convention of 1951, which forms the UNHCR’s working base. Refugees formally underlie international protection and care. From a refugee’s perspective, however, this rather ambivalent status also implies decreed passivity, indefinite waiting, administrative categorization and paternalistic control – as it has been shown by Liisa Malkki, Barbara Harrell-Bond or Michel Agier. In the case of Eritreans the international refugee status may lead to resettlement to a third country, but informal alternatives may occasionally seem more promising. On the other hand it is the formal refugee status (on the base of nationality) that morally legitimizes even informal onward-journeys and asylum-claims.
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Integration of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Social Entrepreneurship Case Study
A person who had to leave his/her home country due to life threatening reasons and seeks to live in another country for safety.
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Identification of Various Dimensions and Indicators of Immigrant Integration Into Global Scenarios
A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence.
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The Rohingya Crisis and the Global Impact of the Refugee Influx
Refugees are people who were compelled to leave their home countries because they had a real fear of being persecuted, threatened, violently attacked, or in some other way facing certain death. They look for safety and protection elsewhere. In times of crisis, refugees frequently flee their homes, taking with them their valuables and even their whole way of life.
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Migration Policy Challenges and Management: Georgian and European Approach
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Mobilizing Zakat (Almsgiving) Funds to Support Refugee Microenterprise Pogroms: A Proposed Conceptual Model
Someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
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A Photo-Narrative of the Sociolinguistic and Sociocultural Identities of a Refugee Adolescent: Through His Eyes
A person who has fled from his or her country or region of residence to escape a life-threatening conflict or persecution.
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Facilitating Linguistic and Academic Success for Newcomer English Language Learners: Essential Knowledge for Educators of Refugees
An individual who flees the homeland, crossing an international border in search of safe haven due to the threat of persecution or death because of race, religion, membership in a social group, political opinion, or national origin. A refugee petitions the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for protection and goes through a vetting process within a refugee camp that has been set up by the UNHCR.
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Refugee Camps: Reconsiderations for a New Age
A refugee is defined as someone who has been forced to leave their home due to political conflict or persecution and is seeking immediate shelter in another country or region.
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Migrants Learning to Become Entrepreneurs: The Case of Migrants in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil
The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) defines a refugee as someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries.
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Race and Cultural Taboo: Refugee Disaster Vulnerability and Resilience
People who have been forced to flee and cannot return their country because of conflict, persecution, war, or violence.
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“And Not Any of Us Go to College”: Educational Challenges of US Burmese Refugee Students
An involuntary migrant; a person who has been forced to leave their home country in order to escape persecution, war, or natural disaster.
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Promotion of Migrant Entrepreneurship: The Portuguese Case Study
A person who was forced to leave his/her country due to armed conflict, persecution, violence, among other situations that undermine his/her integrity.
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Negotiation of Form Among the Displaced: Developing a Corrective Feedback Paradigm for Refugees
A refugee is an individual who has moved to a new nation-state to flee political, religious, economic, or other forms of violence.
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Refugee Voices on Active Citizenship and Social Justice: Life Stories From the Field
A person who has been displaced from their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster and who is unable or unwilling to come back to their country of origin for fear of being persecuted.
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Distributing Leadership Within Rural Schools: Sharing Responsibility for Diverse Student Needs
A person that is forced to abandon their country of origin due to reasons such as war, violence and feared persecution.
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Reflecting Turkey's Attitude and Benevolence Towards Syrian Refugees to the World Through Digitalized Public Diplomacy
A person who has been persecuted in his own country for certain reasons and has taken refuge in another country.
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No One Left Behind?: Migrant and Refugee Health in the COVID-19 Crisis in Greece
In the global context, either a person who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned before, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it. In the EU context, either a third-country national who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned above, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it, and to whom Art. 12 (Exclusion) of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) does not apply.
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De Facto Segregation and the Digital Divide
Refugees are those individuals who seek asylum in another country due to the fear of being persecuted. This can be due to religion, war, politics, or membership within a certain group.
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Worthy: Neoliberalism and Narratives of (Im)migration
Person forced to flee their country of origin because of threats to their life or well-being.
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An Assessment of the Relationship Between Turkey and the United Nations International Organization for Migration in the Context of Public Diplomacy
As defined by the UN, a refugee is “a person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and therefore leaves his country and does not or does not want to return because of his fear”. Immigration is a legal status.
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Parental Engagement in School and Educational Programmes for Immigrant Learners
Refers to any persons who is outside their home country because they have a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, or political stand.
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The COVID-19 Challenges and Opportunities for Immigrant Career Development
An individual who has credible fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political stance; who are outside their country of origin; and who are unable to protect themselves in that country (UNHCR, 2017b). In the United States, refugees are eligible for lawful permanent resident status after living in the country for one year continuously (DHS, 2017).
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Crossing Borders: Challenges of Refugee Women
An individual who flees to another country to escape from a dangerous environment or persecution.
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Striving for Equity: Ways Education Can Be Used to Fight Against Oppressive Systems
Refugees are people who move to a new place out of fear for their safety and/or lives due to a natural disaster, war, or other dangers/threats that target them.
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Many Hats, One Goal: How Language Teachers Impact Refugee Students Beyond Language Instruction
Someone who has fled their home country out of necessity and cannot return home for fear of death, bodily harm, or persecution.
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Engaging Refugee Audiences Through Process and Performance in Multivocal, Community-Based Programs
Someone who has been forced to flee their home country due to war, persecution, and/or violence. Refugees must prove a well-founded fear of persecution due to race, religion, political opinion, nationality, or membership to a particular social group in order to receive refugee status. More often than not, a refugee is unable to return home due to these fears. Note, this differs from immigrant, asylee, and migrant in that must be processed through the United Nations, specifically the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
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