Schema Theory-Based Flipped Classroom Model Assisted With Technologies

Schema Theory-Based Flipped Classroom Model Assisted With Technologies

Zhonggen Yu (Beijing Language and Culture University, Beijing, China) and Qin Zhu (School of Foreign Languages of Hohai University, Nanjing, China)
DOI: 10.4018/IJICTE.2019040103

Abstract

The flipped model assisted with technologies has an edge over the non-flipped model. Through collecting, generalizing, systemizing, and summarizing around 70 publications from SSCI, A&HCI, and EI Compendex databases, it was concluded that the flipped approach could assimilate and adapt learners' schemata before class. In class, the pre-class schemata activation and construction have laid a solid foundation for students' in-class learning activities. Students could achieve successful schemata modification and reconstruction with the assistance of both their partners and teachers through collaborative learning. In the non-flipped classroom, however, they not only lacked the pre-class round of schemata assimilation and adaptation but also could not successfully activate their existing schemata. After class, students in the flipped model with technology could communicate with teachers through the online platform to continue their schemata adaptation process. Future empirical studies are needed to identify the effectiveness of flipped classrooms assisted with technologies.
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Introduction

Research Background

The “flipped classroom” has gained prominence worldwide as a technology-supported pedagogical innovation (Song, et al., 2017). A flipped classroom is named as such because the learning process is “flipped” from its traditional scheme. Flipped classrooms refer to the practice of assigning lectures outside of class and devoting in-class teaching to a variety of learning activities (Delozier and Rhodes, 2016), such as online peer discussion, self-directed and group-based learning. Unlike the non-flipped classrooms, where instructors lecture in class and students take notes and complete their homework at home, the flipped classroom assisted with technologies (FCAT) “flips” in-class lectures with collaborative hands-on activities. Schema Theory lays emphasis on connecting new information with background knowledge, which is an indispensable part of teaching and learning. Based on Schema Theory, people associate input information with prior knowledge when understanding it. Carrell and Eisterhold (1983, p. 45) also pointed out that we depended on previous schemata to interpret new information.

Therefore, students can improve learning if the new information can interact with prior knowledge. FCAT equips students with a round of schema supplement and construction before class, imbuing students with necessary background knowledge related to the new information which will be learned in class. Classroom teaching is the process of cognitive development, the quintessence of which is schemata formation and variation. Thus, Schema Theory can be used to elucidate FCAT.

Literature Review

Though Schema Theory has not been adopted to explore FCAT previously, it has been applied to classroom teaching for a long time. This section will firstly discuss this theory in classroom teaching and the flipped pedagogical approach secondly.

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