Advanced Applications and Structures in XML Processing: Label Streams, Semantics Utilization and Data Query Technologies

Advanced Applications and Structures in XML Processing: Label Streams, Semantics Utilization and Data Query Technologies

Changqing Li (Duke University, USA) and Tok Wang Ling (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Indexed In: SCOPUS View 1 More Indices
Release Date: February, 2010|Copyright: © 2010 |Pages: 500
ISBN13: 9781615207275|ISBN10: 1615207279|EISBN13: 9781615207282|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-727-5


Much of the world's advanced data processing applications are now dependant on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), from publishing to medical information storage. Therefore, XML has become a de facto standard for data exchange and representation on the World Wide Web and in daily life.

Applications and Structures in XML Processing: Label Streams, Semantics Utilization and Data Query Technologies reflects the significant research results and latest findings of scholars' worldwide, working to explore and expand the role of XML. This collection represents an understanding of XML processing technologies in connection with both advanced applications and the latest XML processing technologies that is of primary importance. It provides the opportunity to understand topics in detail and discover XML research at a comprehensive level.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Index Structures for XML Databases
  • Keyword Search on XML Data
  • Object Relational Database Systems
  • Query Processing and Optimization
  • Query Translation and Data Integration
  • Semantics Utilization
  • Stream Processing
  • XML Benchmarks
  • XML Compression
  • XML Native Storage

Reviews and Testimonials

" a very important book in the XML research field, thus it must be read by researchers, engineers, and students who want to understand advanced XML processing topics in depth...

– Philip S. Yu, Professor and Wexler Chair In Information Technology, University of Illinois AT Chicago

In this epic survey of global Extensible Markup Language (XML) research, each chapter is written by a team of researchers who are active in the respective chapter’s topic. The teams select recent and foundational papers published in their area of expertise, and summarize the state of the art for each particular niche. This compilation is simultaneously broad in scope and profound in detail. [...] the most complete text of current XML research on the market.

– Bayard Kohlhepp, Nexus Technologies Inc., Computing Reviews

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has become a de facto standard for data exchange and representation on the World Wide Web and elsewhere. It has played and is still playing an important role in our daily life. Different advanced applications like publish/subscribe, web services, medical information storage, etc., have acknowledged the significance of the role of XML. Therefore, it is important to understand different XML processing technologies like labeling, query and update processing, keyword searching, stream processing, semantics utilizing, etc. In this, the connection of both advanced applications and latest XML processing technologies is of primary importance. In the fields of database, information system, web service, etc., there exists a need for an edited collection of articles in the XML area.

In the past years, different XML research topics have been thoroughly studied by researchers around the world. The authors of the chapters of this book are important researchers from different countries like USA, Canada, Germany, Italy, France, Singapore, China, South Korea, New Zealand etc., and the authors are from both academy and industry. This book reflects their significant research results and latest findings.

This book is organized into five sections covering different aspects of XML research. These five sections are: (1) XML Data Management, (2) XML Index and Query, (3) XML Stream Processing, Publish/Subscribe, and P2P, (4) XML Query Translation and Data Integration, and (5) XML Semantics Utilization and Advanced Application. Each section contains 3 or 4 chapters and the book contains total 18 chapters.

The scholarly value of this book and its contribution will be to the literature in the XML research discipline. It fills the gap between reading an XML tutorial and reading a research paper; with this book, not only can readers understand a specific topic in detail, but they can know other related XML research topics at a comprehensive level.

The audience of this book is any one who wants to know in-depth the different and important XML techniques provided by top researchers around the world. In more detail, the audience could be XML researchers/professors, IT professionals, or the graduate students or seniors in undergraduate for computer science related programs or advanced XML topic courses.

Chapter Overview

Section I, XML Data Management, discusses different XML data management techniques, including XML native storage, management in object relational database systems, compression, and benchmark.

Chapter 1, XML Native Storage and Query Processing, reviews different native storage formats and query processing techniques that have been developed in both academia and industry. Among the XML data management issues, storage and query processing are the most critical ones with respect to system performance. Different storage schemes have their own pros and cons. Therefore, based on their own requirements, different systems adopt different storage schemes to tradeoff one set of features over the others. Various XML indexing techniques are also presented since they can be treated as specialized storage and query processing tools.

Chapter 2, XML Data Management in Object Relational Database Systems, describes the XML data management capabilities in Object Relational DBMS (ORDBMS), various design approaches and implementation techniques to support these capabilities, as well as the pros and cons of each design and implementation approach. Key topics such as XML storage, XML Indexing, XQuery and SQL/XML processing, are discussed in depth presenting both academic and industrial research work in these areas.

Chapter 3, XML Compression, provides a better understanding on relevant theoretical frameworks and an up-to-date research trend of the XML compression. Existing XML compression techniques are classified and examined based on their characteristics and experimental evaluations. Also, according to the comprehensive analysis, appropriate XML compression techniques for different environments are recommended. Furthermore, some future research directions on the XML compression are presented.

Chapter 4 introduces the XML benchmarks, typically standard sets of data with queries enabling users to evaluate system performance that are designed specifically for XML applications. The chapter describes and compares not only the characteristics of each benchmark, but also data generators and real data sets designed for evaluating XML systems. The major contributions of the chapter are the tables for choosing the benchmark to use for a specific purpose. Possible extensions to current XML benchmarks are also discussed.

Section II, XML Index and Query, presents the XML index and query techniques, including XML index structures, labeling, keyword search, and query optimization.

Chapter 5 gives a brief history of the creation and the development of the XML data model. Then it discusses the three main categories of indexes proposed in the literature to handle the XML semistructured data model. Finally, it discusses limitations and open problems related to the major existing indexing schemes.

Chapter 6, Labeling XML Documents, shows how to extend the traditional prefix labeling scheme to speedup XML query processing. In addition, for XML documents that are updated frequently, many labeling schemes require relabeling which can be very expensive. A lot of research interest has been generated on designing dynamic XML labeling schemes. Making labeling schemes dynamic turns out to be a challenging problem and many of the approaches proposed only partially avoid relabeling. This chapter describes some recently emerged dynamic labeling schemes that can completely avoid relabeling, making efficient update processing in XML database management systems possible.

Chapter 7, Keyword Search on XML Data, describes the importance, challenges and future directions for supporting XML keyword search. It presents and compares representative state-of-the-art techniques from multiple aspects, including identifying relevant keyword matches and an axiomatic framework to evaluate different strategies, identifying other relevant data nodes, ranking schemes, indexes and materialized views, and result snippet generation. These studies enable casual users to easily access XML data without the need to learn XPath/XQuery and data schemas, and yet to obtain high-quality results. It also summarizes the possible future research directions of XML keyword search.

Chapter 8 introduces an extensible and rule-based framework for cost-based native XML query optimization, which supports a large fragment of XQuery 1.0—the predominant query language in XML databases. For the evaluation of XQuery expressions, the framework can exploit around 50 physical operators. It can be configured in such a way, that different types of query optimization techniques can be compared with respect to their sufficiency for cost-based XQuery optimization under equal and fair conditions. Therefore, it relies on the native XML database management system XTC (XML Transaction Coordinator). In combination with a cost model for constraining the search space, the framework can be turned into a full-fledged XQuery optimizer in the future.

Section III entitled “XML Stream Processing, Publish/Subscribe, and P2P”, is about some advanced topics of XML.

Chapter 9, XML Stream Processing: Stack-based Algorithms, reviews recent advances on stream XML query evaluation algorithms with stack-based encoding of intermediary data. Originally proposed for disk-resident XML, the stack-based architecture has been extended for streaming algorithms for both single and multiple query processing, ranging from XPath filtering to more complex XQuery. The key benefit of this architecture is its succinct encoding of partial query results to avoid exponential enumeration. In addition, the chapter discusses opportunities to integrate benefits demonstrated in the reviewed work.

Chapter 10 focuses on the content-based publish/subscribe system for XML data. Firstly, the fundamental concepts, i.e. publisher, subscriber and XML routers, in the content-based publish/subscribe system for XML data is introduced. After that, the chapter presents two important issues, i.e. the efficiency of the system and the functionalities that are supported by this system, to consider in content-based publish/subscribe for XML data, and discussed the approaches that address these problems. Finally, the chapter pointed out some potential directions in the content-based publish/subscribe for XML data.

Chapter 11 describes the XML-based data dissemination networks. In these networks XML content is routed from data producers to data consumers throughout an overlay network of content-based routers. Routing decisions are based on XPath expressions (XPEs) stored at each router. To enable efficient routing, while keeping the routing state small, this chapter introduces advertisement-based routing algorithms for XML content, presents a novel data structure for managing XPEs, especially apt for the hierarchical nature of XPEs and XML, and develops several optimizations for reducing the number of XPEs required to manage the routing state. The experimental evaluation shows that the algorithms and optimizations reduce the routing table size by up to 90%, improve the routing time by roughly 85%, and reduce overall network traffic by about 35%. Experiments running on PlanetLab show the scalability of this approach.

Chapter 12 presents XP2P, a framework for fragmenting and managing XML data over structured peer-to-peer networks. XP2P is characterized by an innovative mechanism for fragmenting XML documents based on meaningful XPath queries, and novel fingerprinting techniques for indexing and looking-up distributed fragments based on Chord’s DHT. Efficient algorithms for querying distributed fragments over peer-to-peer networks are also presented and experimentally assessed against both synthetic and real XML data sets. A comprehensive analysis of future research directions on XML data management over peer-to-peer networks completes the contribution of the chapter.

Section IV, XML Query Translation and Data Integration, describes how to normalize and translate XML queries and how to do XML data integration.

Chapter 13, Normalization and Translation of XQuery, argues for an algebraic optimization and evaluation technique for XQuery as it allows people to benefit from experience gained with relational databases. An algebraic XQuery processing method requires a translation into an algebra representation. While many publications already exist on algebraic optimizations and evaluation techniques for XQuery, an assessment of translation techniques is required. Consequently, the chapter gives a comprehensive survey for translating XQuery into various query representations. The chapter relates these approaches to the way normalization and translation is implemented in Natix and discusses these two steps in detail.

Chapters 14 and 15, about XML Data Integration, discuss the challenges and techniques in XML Data Integration. Chapter 14 first presents a four step outline, illustrating the steps involved in the integration of XML data. This chapter, then, focuses on the first two of these steps: schema extraction and data/schema mapping; the next chapter focuses on the remaining steps: merging, query processing and conflict resolution.

Chapter 15 continues from the previous chapter to discuss the merging, query processing and conflict resolution steps in XML data integration. Specifically, merging integrates multiple disparate (heterogeneous and autonomous) input data sources together for further usage, while query processing is one main reason why the data need to be integrated in the first place. Besides, when supported with appropriate user feedback techniques, queries can also provide contexts in which conflicts among the input sources can be interpreted and resolved. This chapter also discusses two alternative ways XML data/schema can be integrated: conflict-eliminating (where the result is cleaned from any conflicts that the different sources might have with each other) and conflict-preserving (where the resulting XML data or XML schema captures the alternative interpretations of the data).

Section V, XML Semantics Utilization and Advanced Application, includes how to utilize semantics to process XML update and query, as well as XML application on web service.

Chapter 16 starts from the update primitives supported by current language proposals, and deals with the data management issues that arise when documents and schema are updated and new versions created. Specifically, the chapter will provide a review of various proposals for XML document updates, their different semantics and their handling of update sequences, with a focus on the XQuery Update proposal. Approaches and specific issues concerned with schema updates are then reviewed. Document and schema versioning is considered and a review of the degree and limitations of update support in existing DBMSs is discussed.

Chapter 17 proposes a hybrid approach which integrates the two classes of exiting XML query processing approaches, i.e. the relational approach and the native approach (inverted lists), and it wants to inherit the advantages and solve the problems in the two approaches. By performing content search using relational tables before structural pattern matching, this approach not only properly solves the value constraints, but also simplifies the pattern matching process, thus improves the query processing efficiency. The chapter also proposes three optimizations based on semantic information of object. Once more object information is known in a given XML document, the approach can use such semantics to improve relational tables, and to get a better performance.

Chapter 18 describes that web applications communicate with web services through the exchange of sequences of XML messages representing requests and responses for specific operations. The available documentation for a service constitutes what is called an interface contract, which specifies the acceptable messages and sequences of messages that can be exchanged with this service. By capturing incoming and outgoing messages during an actual execution of an application and aligning them into an XML document, it is possible to determine whether a specific execution trace satisfies an interface contract. In particular, the chapter shows how sequential constraints expressed in an extension of Linear Temporal Logic with first-order quantification on data can be verified by translating them into equivalent XQuery expressions on XML trace documents.

Dr. Changqing Li, Duke University, USA
Dr. Tok Wang Ling, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Changqing Li is currently a Postdoctoral Associate in Duke University, U.S.A. He received his Ph.D. Degree in Computer Science from National University of Singapore, and Master Degree from Peking University. Dr. Li has been working on XML query and update processing, and text processing and search. He has published 20 papers. He is an editor of this book, and his publications also appear in top international database journals and conferences. Particularly his paper was one of the two candidates for the Best Student Paper Award in a top international database conference ICDE'06. Dr. Li was a member of the Program Committees of International Conferences CIKM, DEXA, and KDIR. He was also a reviewer of journals and conferences TKDE, ACM SIGMOD, VLDB, ICDE, WWW, ACM GIS, etc.
Tok Wang Ling is a professor of the Department of Computer Science at National University of Singapore. His research interests include Data Modeling, ER approach, Normalization Theory, and Semistructured Data Model and XML query processing. He published over 190 papers, co-authored a book and co-edited 9 conference proceedings. He organized and served as Conference Co-chair of 8 conferences including SIGMOD'2007 and VLDB'2010. He served as PC Co-chair of 5 conferences including ER'2003. He served on the PC of more than 130 database conferences. He is a steering committee member of ER Conference. He was an Advisor of the steering committee of DASFAA, chair and vice chair of the steering committee of ER and DASFAA conference, a steering committee member of DOOD and HSI. He is an editor of 5 journals including Data & Knowledge Engineering. He is a senior member of ACM, IEEE, and Singapore Computer Society.


Editorial Board

  • Chin-Wan Chung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea
  • Torsten Grust, Universität Tübingen, Germany
  • H.-Arno Jacobsen, University of Toronto, Canada
  • Bongki Moon, University of Arizona, U.S.A.
  • M. Tamer Özsu, University of Waterloo, Canada
  • Masatoshi Yoshikawa, Kyoto University, Japan
  • Jeffrey Xu Yu, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Philip S. Yu, University of Illinois at Chicago, U.S.A.