Handbook of Research on Emerging Rule-Based Languages and Technologies: Open Solutions and Approaches (2 Volumes)

Handbook of Research on Emerging Rule-Based Languages and Technologies: Open Solutions and Approaches (2 Volumes)

Adrian Giurca (Brandenburg Technology University at Cottbus, Germany), Dragan Gasevic (Athabasca University, Canada) and Kuldar Taveter (University of Melbourne, Australia)
Release Date: May, 2009|Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 862
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-402-6
ISBN13: 9781605664026|ISBN10: 1605664022|EISBN13: 9781605664033
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Description & Coverage

Selecting an appropriate rules-based engine requires balancing many different, and often, not well-understood properties such as business rules representation methods, rule history and life cycle management, and interoperability with external data sources.

The Handbook of Research on Emerging Rule-Based Languages and Technologies: Open Solutions and Approaches provides a comprehensive collection of state-of-the-art advancements in rule languages, containing methodologies for building rule-based applications, rule interoperability and interchange, and rule-based applications. Developers of rule-based languages and technologies as well as users of these applications will find this Handbook of Research to be a significant resource within the field.


The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Code generation patterns
  • Development of ontology-driven applications
  • Development of rule systems
  • Geospatial ontologies
  • Graphical notations
  • Higher-level agent architectures
  • Languages and tools for rule modeling
  • Mining association rules
  • Modular rule-based programming
  • Rule-based applications for the Web
  • Semantic Web rule languages
  • Service-centric systems
Reviews and Testimonials

This handbook aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art of rule languages, methodologies for modeling, designing, and implementing rules, rule interoperability/interchange, and rule-based applications. ...In addition, the book fills a gap in the literature by relating the rule applications to Model Driven Architecture and ontology development on the Semantic Web.

– Adrian Giurca, Brandenburg Technology University at Cottbus, Germany; Dragan Gasevic, Athabasca University, Canada; Kuldar Taveter, University of Melbourne, Australia
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Editor Biographies
Adrian Giurca, is currently investigating methods and applications for information systems of the next generation especially (agent based) reasoning on social media/software and reasoning on the Web and Semantic Web. Formerly, he worked on knowledge representation (particularly with uncertainty representation) and logic programming. Since 2005, he is a senior researcher at the Institute for Informatics of the Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany. From 1990 through 2004, he was with the Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science from University of Craiova, Romania. During this time he was also consultant for a number of small size enterprises. He received its PhD in 2004 from the University of Bucharest, Romania. He has been or is involved in research projects founded by the European Commission (FP6). He has been member of the Network of Excellence REWERSE (http://rewerse.net 2004-2008) of the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission He is regularly serving as a reviewer for international conferences and journals, and he actively contributes to current research themes in web technologies.
Dragan Gasevic is a Canada Research Chair in Semantic Technologies and an assistant professor in the School of Computing and Information Systems at Athabasca University. He is also an adjunct professor in the School of Interactive Arts and Technology at Simon Fraser University, Surrey. His research interests include semantic technologies, software language engineering, technology-enhanced learning, and service-oriented architectures. He is a recipient of Alberta Ingenuity’s 2008 New Faculty Award and has been a principle investigator of several large scale research projects in Canada and Europe. He has (co-)authored more than 200 research papers. He is the lead author of the book monograph entitled Model Driven Engineering and Ontology Development whose second edition is published by Springer in 2009. He has been serving on editorial boards of five international journals and has edited special issues in journals such as IET Software, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, and Elsevier’s Information Systems. Being organizer, chair, and member of program committees of many international conferences and workshops, he is currently serving on the steering committee of the International Conference on Software Language Engineering. Dragan’s home page is available at http://dgasevic.athabascau.ca/.
Kuldar Taveter (PhD in Engineering) is a Professor of Software Engineering in the Department of Informatics at Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia. Before that he was employed by the University of Melbourne, Australia, and in 1997-2005 by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, which acts as a mediator between academy and industry. His main research interests are agent-oriented software engineering and agent-based business process automation and simulation. He has also conducted research on business rules and ontologies.
Editorial Review Board
Editorial Advisory Board
  • Harold Boley, NRC Institute for Information Technology, Canada
  • Carlos Viegas Damasio, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
  • Jens Dietrich, Massey University, Institute of Engineering and Advanced Technology, New Zealand
  • Michael Kifer, State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
  • Gerd Wagner, Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany

    List of Reviewers

  • Costin Badica, University of Craiova, Romania
  • Nick Bassiliades, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Joachim Baumeister, University of Würzburg, Germany
  • Yevgen Biletskiy, University of New Brunswick, Canada
  • Tim Furche, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Germany
  • Dragan Gasevic, Athabasca University, Canada
  • Adrian Giurca, Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany
  • Gianluigi Greco, University of Calabria, , Italy
  • Giancarlo Guizzardi, Fed. Univ of Espirito Santo, Brazil
  • Yuh-Jong Hu, National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Ion Iancu, University of Craiova, Romania
  • Mustafa Jarrar, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
  • Philipp Kaerger, L3S Research Center, Hannover, Germany
  • Antoni Ligeza, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Grzegorz Nalepa, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Adrian Paschke, TU Berlin, Germany
  • Axel Polleres, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
  • Giorgos Stoilos, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
  • Kuldar Taveter, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
  • Yuting Zhao, Aberdeen University, UK
  • Mirel Cosulschi, University of Craiova, Romania
  • Florin Fortis, West University of Timisoara, Romania
  • Nima Kaviani, Simon Fraser University, Canada
  • Efstratios Kontopoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Sergey Lukichev, Canto GmbH, Germany
  • Georgios Meditskos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Milan Milanovic, University of Belgrade, Serbia
  • Viorel Negru, West University of Timisoara, Romania
  • Emilian Pascalau, Hasso Plattner Institute, Germany
  • Ioannis Athanasiadis, Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Lugano, Switzerland
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    Rules have a history from the early days of computer science, including computational models, compiler technology, artificial intelligence, databases, and logic programming. They included backward chaining rules (or derivation rules), forward chaining rules (or production rules), Event-Condition-Action Rules (or reaction rules) while many researchers also consider integrity constraints to be rules as well.

    The history of rule-based programming and rule-based systems started in the 1960s and 1970s with theorem proving, parsing, AI reasoning, and Prolog, a logical and a declarative programming language. During that time, a number of other rule languages were created. Between the 1970’s and 1990’s, rule languages were used mainly in academia in artificial intelligence applications, notably expert systems, and logic programming. However, since the late1990’s, many practical applications of rules in various problem domains have been developed.

    Rules became increasingly important in business modeling and requirements engineering, and as a high level programming paradigm especially in the engineering of e-business applications and of Semantic Web applications. In each of these the fields different rule languages and tools are being used. Rules are used in applications to model and manage some parts of the application business logic. They are best used in applications with a dynamic business logic i.e. applications where changes in the business logic are frequently and they need to be immediately reflected in the application behavior such as insurance (insurance rating), financial services (loans, claims routing and management, fraud detection), government (tax calculations), telecom customers (care and billing), and electronic commerce (personalizing the user's experience, recommender systems, and auctions). Moreover, rules have continued to play an important role in AI shells for knowledge-based systems and in Intelligent Agents, today both needing a Web interchange format, and such XML/RDF-standardized rules are now also usable for the declarative specification of Web Services.

    A number of companies became involved in rule engines design and production (IBM, ILOG, Fair Isaac, HP and others). Later open source projects appeared (for example, JBoss Drools and Jena Rules) and other software vendors (such as, Oracle, TIBCO and SAP) started building their own tools for developing rule-based systems. In the last decade there was standardization efforts pioneered by the Rule Markup Initiative (RuleML), and continued by various parties including the W3C Working Group on Rule Interchange Format (RIF).

    This handbook aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art of rule languages, methodologies for modeling, designing, and implementing rules, rule interoperability/interchange, and rule-based applications. The target readers are practitioners dealing with concrete problems, researchers looking for the challenging research topics, and users and managers willing to advance their current business practices and software solutions. The book helps researchers to learn more about the current state of the art in the area.

    In addition, the book fills a gap in the literature by relating the rule applications to Model Driven Architecture and ontology development on the Semantic Web. It gives an overview of the major issues researchers, developers, and users of rule-based systems may face while researching, developing, and using rule-based systems. This topics are related to: (a) business rules’ representation methods; (b) rule history and lifecycle management; (c) rule types and forms of reasoning; (d) rule verbalization, visualization, and documentation; (e) interoperability with external (data) sources; (f) testing and debugging tools; and (g) authoring environments (IDE vs. Browser vs. Custom). The developers will accommodate rule languages and methodologies to design and build rule-based applications. The users and managers will learn more about rule-based systems, so that choosing solutions may become easier.

    Organization and Structure

    The handbook features chapters authored by 54 leading experts offering an in-depth description of key terms and concepts related to rule technologies, issues and trends in business rules’ management, and rule modeling and rule interoperability technologies in modern organizations worldwide. The handbook contains 27 peer-reviewed contributions organized into three main parts.

    Part I covers the topics of rule languages and rule engines. Particularly, this explores various rule formalisms (such as, description logic and logic programming), domain specific rule languages, various aspects of rule-based reasoning, modular rule languages, graphical notations for rule languages, and the rule languages for the Web.

    Part II is devoted to standards, methodologies, and tools for rules and rule-based systems. This includes topics such as agile development of rule systems, verification and debugging principles used in rule bases, development of Web applications, services, and reactive and rule usage in agent-oriented systems.

    Finally, Part III looks into rule applications, which spans across various application domains such as business process management, high-level agent architectures, service-oriented systems, ontology-driven applications, policy and rule languages, rules and model-driven software development techniques, and tools for rule mining and modeling.

    The handbook contains many practical examples, case studies, and references to external sources containing many useful tools, systems, and engines, which allow the readers to experiment with the presented research results and potentially use them in their current research and practice.


    This handbook would not have been possible without the significant contributions of many individuals and organizations. We are very grateful to the members of the editorial advisory board and reviewers for their dedication in reviewing the papers and providing the authors with substantial feedback. We also thank the authors for their efforts in writing and revising their papers, and we thank IGI Global for publishing the handbook and for a great collaboration throughout all stages of the work on this special issue.

    Adrian Giurca, Cottbus, Germany
    Dragan Gaševiæ, Athabasca University, Canada
    Kuldar Taveter, Tallinn, Estonia