A Contribution to Better Organized Winter Road Maintenance by Integrating the Model in a Geographic Information System

A Contribution to Better Organized Winter Road Maintenance by Integrating the Model in a Geographic Information System

Tomaž Kramberger (University of Maribor, Slovenia)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch536
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Background

One of the most challenging situations from real life is sanding icy winter roads. If the roads are not ploughed or slippery roads are not scattered, participants in traffic are exposed to great danger. Weather conditions often cause traffic jams and have negative economic effect, thus causing great dissatisfaction with people. In several papers (e.g. (Chapman & Thornes, 2011; Shao & Lister, 1995; Cypra & Seidl, 2012) the problem of winter road de-icing is considered using different formulations. In his Ph.D thesis Kršmanec (2013) proposed a new method for the construction of hierarhical regression models. The results are comparable with well known METRo method (Crevier & Delage, 2001). Chapman and Thornes claimed that the decision support system should replace the ‘local knowledge’ of the winter maintenance personnel. A negative bias should be added to the forecast in order to ensure that the highway remains safe and secure for all users (Chapman & Thornes, 2011). Marti et al. (2010) introduce a new multiagent system (MAS) used to support traffic management when the meteorological problems appear in the road network. Despite all technological solutions there are still problems with the reliability of information so Kaare et al. indicate that there are still problems with the reliability of information about road weather conditions. The possible solution is to gather data about key performance indicators and to give feedback about constructed road sections by comparing the data from distinct sensors and locations (Kaare et al., 2012). Chen and Chen used a holistic deterministic model to provide useful assessment and prevention information for traffic and emergency management (Chen & Chen, 2010). Ahmed et al. (2012) suggest that real-time weather information and traffic statuses are essential to address the crash frequency models, particularly for mountainous freeways with adverse weather conditions.

To deal with the problem properly, the security, economical and environmental effects have to be considered. Regarding security, the most exposed and first icy road network spots should be given priority. From the economical point of view, all these roads have to be scattered one after another using the cheapest route. From the environmental point of view we should minimize the undesirable effects that are result of different mechanisms of transporting salt from the roadway to the surroundings.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Dijkstra’s Algorithm: Graph search algorithm that solves the single-source shortest path problem for a graph with non-negative edge path costs, producing a shortest path tree.

Arc Routing: Defines a routing problem regarding the route, not the nodes.

Mathematical Model: Description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

Transportation Problem: Type of linear programming problem that can be solved using a simplified version of the simplex technique called transportation method.

Priority Node: Node, to which the model, based on the data, assign priority to.

Kruskal’s Algorithm: A greedy algorithm in graph theory that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted graph.

Chinese Postman Problem (CPP): Problem with which we find a minimum length closed walk that traverses each edge at least once.

Geographic Information System (GIS): System designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data.

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