An Outline of Threats and Sensor Cloud Infrastructure in Wireless Sensor Network

An Outline of Threats and Sensor Cloud Infrastructure in Wireless Sensor Network

Bhavana Butani (UIT RGPV, India), Piyush Kumar Shukla (UIT RGPV, India) and Sanjay Silakari (UIT RGPV, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6559-0.ch019


Wireless sensor networks are utilized in vital situations like military and commercial applications, traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring, and many other applications. WSNs have to face various issues and challenges in terms of memory, communication, energy, computation, and storage, which require efficient management of huge amount of sensor data. Therefore, storage is an important issue in the WSN. Emergence of Sensor-Cloud infrastructure overcomes several shortcomings of WSN such as storage capacity and offers high processing capabilities for huge sensor data. Security is also the major challenge that is faced by the sensor network. This chapter includes a brief overview of the importance of cloud computing in sensor networks and the goal of DDoS and Node Capture Attack in WSN. This chapter includes descriptions of different modeling techniques of Node Capture attack and various detection and key pre-distribution schemes to invent a new technique to improve network resilience against node capture attacks.
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Wireless Sensor Networks are heterogeneous systems containing several tiny devices known as sensor nodes and actuators with general computing components. These networks will composed of lots of low cost, low power and self-organizing sensor nodes which are distributed either within the network or near it. These sensor nodes contain three main elements-sensing, data processing and communication. Two other elements are also there called, aggregation and base station. Aggregation nodes collects data from the nodes located near it combines the collected data and then sends it to the base station. Figure-1 represents the overview of the basic architecture of the Wireless Sensor Network.

Figure 1.

Wireless sensor network overview

Numerous applications of Wireless sensor network includes habitat monitoring, manufacturing and logistics, environmental observation and forecast systems, military applications, health, home and office application and a variety of intelligent and smart systems. WSNs have to face several issues and challenges in terms of memory, communication, energy, computation and storage which require efficient management of huge amount of sensor data. So, storage is important issue in the WSN to deal with it. The computation and processing ability of sensing nodes are limited as a result of nodes affected by energy constraint because they are run by battery power. Emergence of cloud computing is seen as a promising technique to offer a flexible stack of massive computing, storage and software services in a virtualized way at very less cost. So, integration of cloud computing with Sensor network provides enormous solutions for it which is called as Sensor-Cloud. Sensor-Cloud is a new technique for cloud computing that contains physical sensor nodes to gather its sensor data and then transmits complete sensor data into a cloud computing infrastructure.

Security is one of the major issues that are faced by wireless sensor network today. Robust security schemes are needed for transmitting secured information using sensor nodes within the network. There exist two levels of security schemes, low level and high level. The low level scheme includes secured routing, resilience against node capture attack, privacy, Key establishment and trust setup etc., and High level scheme includes intrusion detection, secure group management and secure data aggregation (Padmavathi, & Shanmugapriya, 2009).

The Attacks are mainly divided into two types as active and passive attacks. In Active attack, the unauthorized attacker’s monitors, listen to and modifies the data stream in the packet exchange within the network. Active attack includes routing attacks, eavesdropping and creation of a false stream etc. The monitoring and eavesdropping on the packet exchange by unauthorized attackers within a WSN are known as passive attack. Passive attack includes all attacks against privacy like monitor and eavesdropping, traffic analysis, camouflage adversaries. Basically node capture attack captures a particular node within the network. Then removes that compromised node from the network and redeploys them for performing diverse attacks. An adversary can alter the information, program and redeploys those malicious nodes within the network environment. Whereas Distributed Denial of Service attack is an attack where number of compromised sensor node attack a single target node so that services offered by a target node to its user becomes unavailable. The security mechanism goes to have to guarantee that, when the compromised nodes are detected into the WSN, the non-compromised links should not be affected until the redeployment of the compromised nodes in the WSN. Security of a sensor network is more important when mobile nodes present in the network.

This chapter provides the description of Senor-Cloud infrastructure and benefits and layered architecture of the Sensor-Cloud. It also provides description of Distributed Denial of Service and Node Capture Attack in Wireless Sensor Network. Apart from these, it contains a survey of modeling of node capture attacks using different techniques and various protocols and detection schemes used for network resilience against node capture attacks.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Key Pre-Distribution: Key Pre-distribution is a scheme to distribute keys onto different sensor nodes prior to deployment. Therefore, these sensor nodes creates network through establishing secured links between different nodes using their shared secret keys after the deployment. A key pre-distribution scheme has three phases: 1) Key Distribution; 2) Shared Key Discovery; 3) Path-key establishment. During these phases, Secret keys are generated and placed in the sensor nodes and then each sensor node in the network looks for the area in its communication range to find other node to communicate. A shared secured link is established when two nodes have at least one common key between them and then communication is happened on that link. After that paths are established by connecting these secured links to create a connected graph. The result is wireless sensor network which perform functions according to key pre-distribution scheme used in the network creation.

Cloud Computing: Cloud Computing is a computing over the internet. It allows for sharing computing resources rather than having local servers and personal devices to handle applications. In other words cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internal.

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