Civic Engagement and Strategic Leadership for Organizational Development: Community-Based Organizational Development in Tanzania, Africa

Civic Engagement and Strategic Leadership for Organizational Development: Community-Based Organizational Development in Tanzania, Africa

Robert W. Kisusu (Tarime Institute of Business Management, Tanzania) and Samson T. Tongori (Buhemba Community Development Training Insitute, Tanzania)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2372-8.ch002


Community-based organizations (CBOs) are non-profit organizations established voluntarily by members in order to deliver specified services effectively. However, CBO development in Tanzania reported performing unsatisfactorily. This chapter highlights causal key problems and controversial and established solutions that can improve CBO development. Among the problems are financial dependency, weak managerial skills, low ICT coverage, gender inequality, poverty, and poor infrastructure. But the controversial issues are ineffective consultation between key actors and gender dominated by males. To achieve CBO development, the chapter notes the use of civic engagement, especially sensitization, awareness creation while strategic leadership focus on voluntary, sacrificial and compromising leaderships. The chapter concludes that CBO development in Tanzania is best to apply components of civic engagement and strategic leadership while the recommendation is to combine and integrate both civic engagement and strategic leadership with their essential sub-components.
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Theory of Civic Engagement on Organization Development

Participation of organizational members is among the criteria that could stimulate organizational development. As definitely and rationally organizational members would like to see effectiveness of their established organization and therefore participation considered important approach. This is significant as participation of members possess cohesive momentum which help to scan how best the path directing effectiveness and desirable organizational development. Due to that prominence, the theory assumed this occurred even during ancient periods. For that assumption, civic engagement theory is an attitude where an individual or group of citizen in the country intervenes in order to improve existing situation (Chapman University, 2019). Owing to such overview, it is imperative and making sense that the theory on civic engagement gives education to society or group so that they transform a necessary pressure containing fact in order to adopt valuable direction.

Moreover, a question of organizational development (OD) is traditionally well thought out as a realistic issue for members to follow. For that matter, the theory assumes organizational development does not need a force but convincing mode.

Since conventionally a theory of organizational development is attracting issue, then thus why highly encouraged. The civic engagement theory stipulated by various scholars. For instance, Putnam (2000) asserted that civic engagement is in great decline and that this will have grave consequences for the health of democracy. It is further noted that civic engagement correlates highly with democracy.

However, it is possible that organizational development is shanking and instable and likely due to a behaviour feeling that development are either dissatisfying on return from organization or less known. This means effectiveness could be captured through various techniques including engaging democracy. Well, this thinking evidences how civic engagement plays significant role on knowing what members need. That is why several social theorists including Hobbes (1651) and Locke (1690) noted an idea of democracy in the seventeenth century (17th). But more established by Rousseau (1762) as he thought democracy builds human freedom and desired development. As he thought it was a key pillar on political issues including development. Such argument suggests how the organizational development correlates with several behavioural remarks like motivation, willingness and freedom. However, democracy is not the sole prerequisite condition influencing members development. Nevertheless, more important is consideration on civic engagement

Theory of Strategic Leadership on Organizational Development

The theory of strategic leadership on organization development focuses on organizational effectiveness, therefore is an important criterion for human advancement. This is so as when organization takes place, the basic issue is how the organization will develop ? For such matter, the theory notes that strategy to develop is a necessary issue. Then the theory indicates that effective force must be applied. For historical record, leaders decide to involve strategic techniques for solving the identified problem. In that case, strategic leadership considered as the best solution. Among the neo-classical theorist who supported strategic leadership is McGregor (1960). From that period, literatures show how strategic leadership applied to organizational development worldwide. On a theoretical and fundamental, organizational development means how effective organization performs a task. However, performed task which causes positive change assumed does not disturb the invested resources specifically funds. As funds are normally known as limited and less renewable unless sufficient technology well used to increase the fund.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Local Government Authorities: Local government authorities defines as a legal empowered local administrative authorities representing community at a grass root level for carrying necessary duties. However, in Tanzania, local government authorities work as agent of central government. In this case, performing duties and functions according to community interest. But more important is delivering services to the local communities. In Tanzania case, there is lower local government authorities operating at cluster involving sub- villages and villages or Mtaa (Street) while at higher level means district or urban/municipal/city level. All leaders are elected by people and leadership carried by councilors who are also elected according to established regulations.

Quality of Life: Is defined as improved value of life of human being based on international indicators.

Tanzania: Global position system (GPS) locates Tanzania between Longitudes 29.33 0 to 40.450 0 east of Greenwich and Latitudes 0.990 0 to 11.750 0 south of Equator (World Atlas, n.d AU47: The in-text citation "World Atlas, n.d" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ). That is coverage of 947, 303 Km 2 which is three times size of New Mexico. Moreover, Tanzania ranks 23 rd and 13 th the largest in the World and Africa respectively. Such huge proportion of land and population justify the importance of knowing how CBOs in the country develop the population. Moreover, population living in that area estimated by 2019 as 58.01 million people where on sex basis, 50.03% and 49.97% are females and males respectively (World Population Review, 2019 AU48: The in-text citation "World Population Review, 2019" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ). It indicates, females are more than male and therefore, female could make significant decision on organizational development. More interesting geographically is that the country borders eight (8) countries. Basing on Africa continent map, these countries include Kenya and Uganda on the north, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo on the west, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique on the south. Even though, Indian Ocean is on the eastern side. And about 75% of population earn living from rural economies (Tanzania Fact Book, 2018 AU49: The in-text citation "Tanzania Fact Book, 2018" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).

Strategic Leadership: Strategic leadership defined as a type of leadership where leader or key actor in the organization convince others or stakeholders to change their behavior to more effective one. In this case, leaders consider interest of employees (internal actors) and external actors by integrating all basic requirement in the leadership but with objective of sustaining organizational growth. Example of strategic leadership is combining organization interest and employee interest, using good governance, considering ethical management, enabling competitive environment, employees owning the organization and other associated ones but for positive change.

Rural Development: Rural development defined as a process of improving the quality of life and wellbeing of people living in rural areas. For instance in Tanzania, rural development focuses on how to increase agricultural production and sectors supporting agriculture which include education, health, water supply, natural resources, environmental improvement. In this case, rural development linked with agricultural development. Thus why most of CBOs in Tanzania focus more on rural development.

Ethical Leadership: Ethical leadership defined as leadership considering desirable moral, good principles, good rule, unbiased decision making and respecting human being. Example of ethical leadership is managing issues based on pillars of good governance. This includes democratic, rule of law, integrity, transparent, openness and participatory behavior.

Organizational Development: Organizational development is defined as a situation where organization grows effectively from lower to higher level. The examples of organizational development include effectiveness of increasing volume of products, manpower increases, market expansion, more investment from saving, use of technological inputs such as digital, automated tools, using industrial revolution techniques for further achievements. But more important is that human behavioral science and its components normally incorporated at optimal level.

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