Enabling Technologies for IoT: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities

Enabling Technologies for IoT: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities

Rajalakshmi Krishnamurthi (Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, India) and Mukta Goyal (Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8407-0.ch013


The internet of things (IoT) is a fast-growing paradigm gaining position in the modern scenario of communication. It targets to provide interconnection among different objects at any time, and anywhere on the earth, under the leverage of internet. IoT has exhibited the promising enhancement in almost all dimensions of the everyday human life scenarios. The IoT applications are smart energy systems, manufacturing services, industrial automation, healthcare, education, smart city, transportation, and security and surveillance. However, there are several issues associated with IoT objectives such as data traffic, security and privacy, data analytics, device localization, and scalability. In addition to this, the IoT objects are resource constrained in terms of memory, computing power, energy, storage, and networking capability. Hence, IoT systems need enabling technologies to overcome these challenges by means of cloud computing, big data, cyber physical systems, and block chain. This chapter discusses how these enabling technologies can be integrated with IoT and its challenges.
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According to Gartner report, envisage that more than 26 billion of individual things will be connected by 2020 through Internet. It is prominent that by the concept of “Internet of Things”, huge amount of data is generating from these things. In 2017, Capgemini Asia pacific Wealth Report predicts that particularly Asia pacific countries will contribute more towards the IoT growth. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 33.3% is expected by 2020. IoT technology provides conglomeration of generic ICT technology with several other enabling technologies like cloud computing, big data, cyber-physical system, and block chain (Perera, et al. 2014). In addition, the IoT technology provides foundation for Leadership in Enabling & Industrial Technologies (LEIT). The IoT incorporates multiple stakeholders like within its framework. The IoT ecosystem is dense with several key players rather than focusing on deployment of one specific technological solution. IoT systems exhibit multiple instances of applications and services in improving the quality of life of human beings. According to ITU and IERC-Internet of Things European Research Cluster, “Internet of Things (IoT) is a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated into the information network”.

Internet of Things is umbrella under which all the objects are connected through Internet. The IoT objects are needed to be uniquely recognized, their position of existence and status of liveability has to be monitored, and these objects should be accessible from anywhere through internet (Stankovic, 2014; Barbero, 2011). Further, (Violette, 2018) addressed the various IoT standards. In order to achieve these objectives, IoT architecture consists of three major components namely hardware, middleware, and services. The hardware components consist of sensors, computing devices, actuators, and embedded systems. The middleware component consists of functionalities that can gather the data from the hardware components through Internet, store these data and process the data for any specific applications as required. The services components consist of application services that met up the user specifications via effective user interfaces. According to (Palattell, et al. 2013; Atzori, et al. 2010)It is to be noted that, in recent years, IoT systems further enhanced through enabling technologies like Cloud computing, Big Data, Block Chain and Cyber physical Systems (CPS). The authors (Chin, 2017; Fitzgerald, 2018) discussed the need for convergence of different technologies in order to provide smart personalized services.

The cloud computing provides three major components as service namely Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). The objective of the cloud computing is to solve the problem of limited storage and computation capabilities of standalone network of systems. The cloud computing provides advanced features such as elasticity, scalability, and availability to any computing system connected to the Cloud resources. These resources from cloud are fetched through Internet connectivity to the IoT based end computing systems.

The cloud computing enables the IoT system through the features of infrastructure, platform, and services. The added features like “Sensing as a Service” are discussed by in literature that facilitates the storage of sensed data on to the cloud platform. The combination of IoT and Cloud Computing has been addressed widely as “Cloud of Things”. This concept explores the process of gathering the sensor data through IoT and then stores the data in cloud for further data analysis.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Big Data: The conventional techniques to store data are relational databases and sequential data processing. These techniques are efficient to handle and process limited data size. However, in today's scenario, there is very huge data been generated, through these conventional mechanisms, whereas fail to handle huge volumes of data. As a solution to this problem, big data mechanisms and tools are effective to handle these huge volumes of data sets.

Cyber Physical Systems: The cyber physical system (CPS) provides standardized platform for combining the physical objects in the IoT system and the computational components of the IoT technology.

Block Chain: The block chain mechanisms perform registration and authentication of all IoT devices and IoT system operations performed.

Cloud Computing: The cloud computing enables the IoT system through the features of infrastructure, platform, and services.

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