Factors Influencing Green Purchase Intention Among Food Retail Consumers: An Empirical Study on Uttar Pradesh

Factors Influencing Green Purchase Intention Among Food Retail Consumers: An Empirical Study on Uttar Pradesh

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-8969-7.ch016
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The main objective of the study is to investigate the factors influencing the green purchase intention of Indian food retail consumers using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Additionally, the study also aims to determine the effect of green consciousness and health consciousness over green purchase intention among Indian food retail consumers and give suggestive measures for effective implementation of green policies and green practices of the consumers. The study is conducted based on the quantitative as well as qualitative approach, with data collected from 384 Indian consumers of Uttar Pradesh through a self-administered five-point rating questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis are adopted for the data analysis to identify the predictors of green purchase intention of the consumers, highlighting the importance of subjective norms, environmental knowledge, green consciousness, and health consciousness, which are positively and significantly influenced the green purchase intention with consumer attitude being least significant variable in the study.
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Environment issues such as global warming, climate change, extinction of animals and plant species, and depletion of limited natural resources are the major concern of all the societies for the last two-three decades. The “environment” more specifically the green environment plays a significant role in influencing human roles and their activities, making it one of the marketing issues (Moisander,2007). Today, marketers' primary concern is the environment and SDGs are at the heart of policy makers globally due to which green consumerism became one of seventeen sustainable development goals based on consumers' belief in the consequences of their actions. One cannot side-line the importance of sustainable and green consumption.

Green Consumption refers to environmentally conscious consumption. Environmentally conscious purchasing, as well as the utilization and correct disposal of various products and services, must be carried out correctly, and environmentally responsible strategies must be followed both by consumers and producers. Through adopting green eco-friendly consumption practices and only purchasing green products, goods and services, consumers can lessen the negative impact that they have on the environment as well as to avert environmental degradation. With the increased environment awareness and green demand trends of products, only 3 percent of the total market share is represented by eco-friendly products (Bray et al., 2011). These findings suggest that consumers of today continue to ignore the environmental impacts of product acquisitions (Mohr et al., 2001).

The authorities in India have therefore changed their activities to be more eco-friendly because of global environmental awareness. By launching environmentally responsible initiatives and measures since start of 21st century, the higher authorities demonstrated significant support for environment friendly projects. By diversifying the responsible economy and increasing productivity in the face of environmental challenges, the nation is now regarded as one of those striving for a green economy (Jain & Kaur, 2006). Over the last few years in India, the market specifically for green food products has been growing at a quick pace from the fact that many organic food stores are opening in India. Due to increasing health concern among Indian consumers in major cities have been the major important factor contributing to rapid growth in the market. The market of green food in India is likely to grow at a CAGR of over 25 percent. (Indian Organic Food Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2020). Despite all these efforts and initiatives that have been taken by Indian government, the knowledge about behavioural trends and consumers intention to buy green food products is still restricted among Indians.

Food retail stores are amongst the key stakeholders of natural resources through sustainable production, which could help to transform routine corporate operations into more environmentally friendly ones (Claro, Neto, and Claro, 2013). Thus, with varied degrees of success, majority of merchants are incorporating green practices into their daily operations. To achieve this, a detailed understanding of green production and consumption is required by both food retailers and food retail consumers for implementation of green practices and green purchase intentions respectively. Therefore, it is important to understand the food retail consumers purchase intentions of food products as well to get a thorough grasp of the elements influencing consumers’ decision to buy green products.

Environmental responsible purchasing is essential since impulsive purchases of products and services can seriously harm the planet and the environment. 40 percent of the environmental harm was caused by consumer-related household purchases (Grunert, 1995). Consumer intention to purchase is a crucial topic, irrespective of consumerism (Chen, Chen, and Tung, 2018). Green purchasing refers to the purchasing of environmentally responsible goods and is most responsible to measure intention to make green purchases and behaviour. There is a segment of society that is really interested and supportive of the environment. It is also impossible to overlook the fact that a sizable portion of society continues to be either unconcerned or uninformed of their environment. However, a lot of factors influence a consumers’ decision to buy organic food goods.

This study contributes to enrich the theoretical consumer behaviour using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in Indian literature review. In addition, the study's findings will assist organizations, marketers, and policy makers in comprehending the behavioural dimensions of customers and putting the orientation procedures into action. With a better understanding of these factors, more businesses and marketers will be attracted, leading to the creation and improvement of green marketing strategies to draw in more green clients and put methods in place to encourage green buying.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Health Consciousness: A mindset that is conscious of how healthy one's diet and lifestyle are.

Green Products: The performance of green products is enhanced for both society and the environment. When compared to standard product options on the market, green products are vastly superior in terms of their creation, use, and disposal. (Peattie, 1995 AU62: The in-text citation "Peattie, 1995" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ). For example, green cars, recycled products, energy efficient electronics, organic tea, etc.

Intention: An individual's intention is a sign that they are prepared to engage in a particular behaviour.

Sustainable Development: The fulfilling of human needs without endangering the environment for both the present and future generations is referred to as sustainable development. To protect environmental deterioration and improve people's quality of life, sustainable development must consider the demands of future generations, social justice regardless of racial prejudice, and future generations' needs.

Green Consciousness: A mindset that is conscious of harm to ecosystems or the environment being decreased, minimal, or non-existent.

Organic Food Knowledge: An attitude in which one has awareness of its features, nutrition values, benefits, etc.

Perceived behavioral control: The apparent ease or difficulty of carrying out a behaviour is known as perceived behavioural control, and it is thought to reflect experience as well as anticipated obstacles and effects.

Environmental Knowledge: Environmental knowledge is a broad understanding of the facts, ideas, and connections relating to the natural world.

Green Consumerism: Green consumerism refers to a consumer's preference for goods and services that are not only environmentally friendly but also beneficial to the environment. The marketing industry adopted a green consumerism approach in response to the growing demand for green products.

Consumer Attitude: It reflects either favourable and unfavourable evaluations of an “attitude towards and object”. Attitudes are often consistent with behaviors, then can be situational as well.

Subjective norm: A person's view of the attitudes of important persons towards the adoption of a behaviour is known as a subjective norm.

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