Folk Culture and Education: The Role of Information Technology and Information and Communication Technologies in the Production of Digital Educational Materials

Folk Culture and Education: The Role of Information Technology and Information and Communication Technologies in the Production of Digital Educational Materials

Alexandros G. Kapaniaris (Democritus University of Thrace, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4576-8.ch018

Abstract

The subject matter of the chapter is the result of a doctoral thesis conducted in the Department of Preschool Education and Educational Design of the University of the Aegean in Greece. The purpose of this chapter, derived from a corresponding thesis on the issue of folk culture and education, is to explore the role of information technology and information and communication technologies (ICT) in the production of digital educational material. In essence, the work comes to contribute to the scientific debate on whether technology can enhance the relationship between folk culture and education through interactive-multimedia and online technologies. Simultaneously, this project also aspires to contribute to the configuration of the instruction of folk culture through enriched teaching interventions by analog and digital means.
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Introduction

This paper presents the implementation of a research applied, for the first time in Greece, as far as we know in the field of folk culture and education, the experimental research with intervention groups (IGs) and control groups (CGs) on a fairly large sample of students (eight Elementary School classes) attempting to compare the effectiveness of digital enriched teaching to the analog enriched teaching. Thus, useful conclusions will be exported about whether multiple media (analog and digital) along with appropriate teaching design, can create enriched teaching situations, in which students will be able to search the context for learning experiences by combining authentic situations and learning within groups. It is a research method, which mainly uses the quantitative but also the qualitative method (observation and open discussion). Regarding the sample selection criteria, Fourth Grade with two separate classes were preferred, while location was also another criterion, schools in urban, semi-urban and rural areas were preferred.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), with multimedia and web applications considered as the spearhead, have years developed a new interactive way of communication (Kalogiannakis & Papadakis, 2007). New digital forms of everyday expression on the Internet are daily being shaped by online behaviors, where women and men can easily use text, video and audio in their informal on-line chat, creating thus new forms of language (Kalogiannakis & Papadakis, 2008; Papadakis, Tousia, & Polychronaki, 2018). Thus, from texting (producing and sending written messages), we were eventually led to viding (making video with the use of montage) (Howard 2016: 50). In recent years communication has evolved and conversations are taking place with the use of avatars in 3D computer-generated environments in which one can be immersed (e.g. second life) (Lanier, Minsky, Fisher & Druin, 1989). Simultaneously, new forms of communication with augmented reality applications are initiated (Vidakis et al., 2019). Such applications integrate the real world, as perceived by the user or through his / her senses, information and material, mainly visual and audio, created by a computer unit (Mustakas, Paliokas, Tsakiris & Tsovaras 2015: 215).

One of the reasons that would facilitate the selection of ebooks in the future, especially in the educational field, is to avoid problems regarding the form and often the incomplete content of a printed text. The disadvantages of a conventional book are: a) rough layout, b) a variety of terms that require the recourse to various dictionaries or glossaries for photographs, drawings and paintings which are located in other pages, c) recourse to references at the end of chapters, d) recourse to references on other books and e) recourse to references of internet links that cannot be directly accessed. The enriched eBooks come to eliminate all the above with a variety of tools that increase the functionality and interactivity of reading. Indicatively some of the characteristics of enriched eBooks are associated respectively with e-book devices:

  • reading and automatic turning of pages

  • touch or mouse selection of photos that are simultaneously magnified

  • transfer to a specific page

  • content’s table view

  • multimedia content (video, video from You tube, sound, recorded speech, animation, illustration)

  • internal and external links

  • full access to embedded Internet browser to navigate on sites related to the book and the work of the student, simultaneously with reading

  • drafting short essays using a rich text editor that can be displayed next to the open eBook

  • appearance of enriched material without the student having to move from the page that he/she reads (Shadowbox),

  • use of bookmarks, attachments, markings, and generally many interventions that students can make up on the printed books

  • search by keywords

  • change font or font size

  • change page color, text and luminance

  • horizontal and vertical display

  • activation or deactivation of alignment and hyphenation (Gasouka, Kapaniaris, Arvanitidou, Foulidi & Raptou, 2013:4177-4178)

Key Terms in this Chapter

STEM: The term STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is an acronym used by those relevant to the educational method concerning the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

ICT (Information and Communication Technology): A term that covers all technical means used to handle information and aid communication, including software and hardware.

Enriched Analog Teaching: The term analog teaching refers to a teaching process that students using various means, materials and techniques which are analog rather than digital (collage, comic, painting, drawing, diagrams, etc., can create artifacts through analog learning deliverables resources (photography, interviewing, creative writing, fairy tale, archive material) within an authentic learning environment where students themselves create and become producers of educational material.

Digital Artifact: The term refers to any form of digital creation, digital art composition, digital representation with the help of any web tool or other software.

Enriched Digital Teaching: The term enriched digital teaching refers to a teaching process which encourages and supports the use of ICT and more particularly, online writing environments for the production of artifacts with enriched interactive learning resources. Thus, students within a genuine learning framework that they themselves create become producers of educational material.

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