Governance Model From the VUCA Perspective: Proposal for the Department of Quindío (Colombia)

Governance Model From the VUCA Perspective: Proposal for the Department of Quindío (Colombia)

Copyright: © 2024 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/979-8-3693-0720-5.ch007
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The Republic of Colombia is in the top five countries with the greatest biodiversity in the world, with more than 50,000 registered species. The climatic conditions and the location of the department of Quindío result in a mosaic of favorable conditions for the development of biodiversity. This region is home to approximately 10% of Colombian biodiversity, in the variety of ecosystems ranging from 950 meters above sea level in the La Vieja River to 4,700 meters. Due to the above, it is necessary to study under the VUCA approach to the situation of the bird tourism sector from the perspective of the public management system. The present study is based on a qualitative documentary review, the achievement of a focus group of experts, public administrators, community references, and teachers who provide a model that allows proposing a new model of multilevel governance for the sustainable development of bird tourism in the region. As conclusions, the model is presented with recommendations for its implementation.
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The Republic of Colombia (commonly referred to as simply ‘Colombia’) was one of the three (3) countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). Located in Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama, Colombia’s territory expands to a total of 2.070.408 Km2, comprising all types and kinds of surfaces, high mountains, foothills, valleys, deserts, seas, and coasts, thus making Colombia one of the 5 countries with greatest biodiversity in the whole world. (Rincón-Ruiz et al., 2014).

As stated priorly, Colombia is one of the world's “megadiverse” countries, hosting close to 10% of the planet's biodiversity. In 2013, Colombia became the first country to record a landmark 1,900 species of birds—a figure that continues to increase every year. The country has nearly 20 percent of the world's total avian species, including 200 migratory species, 87 threatened birds, and 79, sadly, endemics. (Chaparro et al., 2013).

“Administratively, Colombia is a divided into 32 departments, which in turn are divided into municipalities, departmental districts (departments), or districts. Within this territorial organization, there is an intermediate territorial division between department and municipality, called provinces or subregions.” (Ramírez & De Aguas, 2016, p. 11).

Amongst the Colombian departments, there is one known as Quindío, located in the west-central region of the country in the Andean region and an integral part of what is known as “Eje Cafetero”, the Colombian coffee belt. Bordering with Risaralda to the north, Tolima to the south and east, and Valle del Cauca to the west, Quindío’s capital city is Armenia, and it is considered a harbinger of the “cultura paisa.” (Gobernación del Quindío, 2020). The Science Center of the Botanical Garden of Quindío states that within its 15 hectares there are 176 bird species registered, constituting 33% of those in the department’s total. What’s more, Quindío’s landscape entails a high degree of biodiversity thus allowing the presence of different adequate habitats for different types of avian life, that coexist in 49,744 protected hectares and 22,412 hectares of strategic ecosystems, which are composed of moorlands with 19,083 hectares, tropical dry forests with 144 hectares and wetlands with 3,185 hectares (Jardín Botánico del Quindío, 2022).

The proposed National Development Plan for the current presidency contemplates utilizing Colombia’s evident advantages in terms of biodiversity and harnessing them into competitive advantages, consolidating Colombia as a key global player in the pursuit of alternative economic schemes such as bio-tourism, where bird watching will be obviously included, allowing the Colombian economy to gradually step away from the exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels, hence attaining a much desired fossil fuel substitution (Government of Quindío, 2020).

In consequence, the 2019 Mission of Wise Men and Women, defined the country’s biodiversity as a fundamental pillar for the nation's progress along the lines of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, thence ratifying Goal 15 of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which promulgates the need to protect, restore and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land segregation and halt the loss of biological biodiversity (Minciencias, 2029).

Key Terms in this Chapter

UNWTO: The United Nations World Tourism Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations which promotes responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism.

CESD: The Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development is a non-profit research institution whose mission is to design, monitor, evaluate, and improve ecotourism and sustainable tourism practices and principles.

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible: Colombia’s Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development is the public entity in charge of defining the National Environmental Policy and promoting the recovery, conservation, protection, planning, management, use and exploitation of renewable natural resources, in order to ensure sustainable development and guarantee the right of all citizens to enjoy and inherit a healthy environment.

Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo: Colombia’s Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism or MCIT, is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia concerned with promoting economic growth though trade, tourism, and industrial growth.

CST: The Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) is one of the first systems, if not the first, to achieve the integration of the principal elements of sustainable tourism, analyzing good management practices, the environmental and social impacts of services.

CREST: The Center for Responsible Travel is a global nonprofit organization based in Washington, DC dedicated to increasing the positive global impact of responsible tourism. CREST provides evidence-based research and analysis to governments, policymakers, tourism businesses, nonprofit organizations, and international agencies to solve the most pressing problems confronting tourism, the world’s largest service industry.

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