Mobile Application to Exercise Oral Language From a Systems Approach

Mobile Application to Exercise Oral Language From a Systems Approach

Anabelem Soberanes-Martín (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico), Samuel Olmos Peña (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico) and Magally Martínez Reyes (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1486-3.ch008

Abstract

The primary means of human communication is language; it requires support to develop the ability to speak and it is not the same for everyone. Intellectual Disability (ID) makes the child learn and develop more slowly, leading to the development of language software. The chapter develops an application for mobile devices called Gradual Interactive Language (GIL), created through five stages of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and the classic model of software development. The results of the pilot test indicated that it is an alternative support to move from pre-language to language, not limited to children with ID, the only thing that would depend is the moment in which it will use; in addition to showing improvement through gradual exercises that allow the child to advance, considers the roles involved in the process of learning language (teachers, educators or therapists, parents, children, and technology), finally, a technical virtue of GIL is to run on any device regardless of the operating system it uses (iOS or Android).
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Introduction

The primary means of communication of human beings is language, with this reference is made to the set of sounds and signs that human beings have used since its creation until today to communicate with other individuals of the same species (RAE, 2019), to which it manifests both what it feels and what it thinks about any tangible or intangible social issue, natural or abstract; hence, as a species, human language is the most developed.

According to the theory of language from the perspective of linguistics, language composed of language (language, a general and constant model of a linguistic collectivity that integrates a community) and speech (momentary materialization of that resource, individual and voluntary action carried out through phonation and writing) (Saussere, 2016).

In technical terms three dimensions are recognized within language: form (phonology, morphology, and syntax), content (semantics) and use (pragmatics) and therefore different types of languages developed (cult, technical, colloquial, so forth). Thus, language is a gradual process that first goes through a pre-language stage and then develops its capacities extensively (Saussure, 2016). The pre-language is a rudimentary system of communication that becomes evident during the first years of life, and that implies capacities of neurophysiological and psychological characteristics, such as perception, motricity, imitation, and memory (Koerner, 1982). Therefore, this is an essential stage for children to be able to interact with their environment and begin to establish relationships with the individuals around them.

In this sense, when children have language problems it is crucial that they have support to develop their ability to speak through language, mainly because it is not the same for all children, for example when Intellectual Disability (ID) causes the child to learn and develop more slowly than children of the same age, which manifested in the fact that they may need more time to learn to speak, walk, dress or eat without the help of their parents, and of course they have learning problems in school.

The Mexican Academy of Pediatrics (2019), establishes some standards to determine reasonable progress or if you may need additional help. For example, children with speech disorders may have trouble producing sounds correctly; they may hesitate or stutter when speaking. While children with language disorders may have trouble understanding what others are saying or may have difficulty communicating their thoughts.

This need for help has led in recent years to a broadening of the scope from computing and software development to education at different stages, primarily in early education, and particularly concerning educational language support software. The traditional options that incorporate technology range from websites with webinars, online courses for parents and educators, mobile download applications (app), virtual didactic games, and others (API, 2019).

A recurrent modality presented as entertaining and eye-catching didactic games, which try to help children learn to read and write, develop cognitive and communication skills, acquire vocabulary, improve memory and concentration and awaken the imagination, among others (Saalem, 2019).

Although according to the Horizont Report (2017) there are successful developments and others with essential limitations in proposals that incorporate mobile devices, it is clear that it shares the same limitations of any technological application if care not taken in its design and a model not contemplated that allows to evaluate that each phase of the development of the application fulfills the requirements of the final user, in addition, a defined instructional design is necessary to reach a concrete educational objective, to support the development of language processes in children, with or without language problems.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Educational Technology: Information and communication technology incorporated into education to help improve activities in teaching and learning processes.

Gradual Interactive Language (GIL): Mobile application to practice the oral language of children with intellectual disabilities.

Language: Set of sounds and signs that human beings have used since its creation until today to communicate with other individuals of the same species.

General Systems Theory (GST): Establishes that any real-life problem has the behavior of a general system, that is, that it is a set of interrelated parts (subsystems) with a common objective, that contains inputs and outputs in the form of matter, energy or information, and influenced by an environment.

Software Engineering: Set of methods, techniques, and tools for the development of computer programs (software).

Intellectual Disability: When a person learns and develops more slowly than other people of the same age, which manifested in the fact that they may need more time to learn to talk, walk, dress or eat without help and of course they have learning problems in school.

Mobile Learning: It is a branch of Information and Communication Technologies in education to make it more affordable through technological means.

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