NPP I&C Systems: General Provisions

NPP I&C Systems: General Provisions

Michael A. Yastrebenetsky (State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ukraine), Yuri Rozen (State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ukraine) and Oleksandr Klevtsov (State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ukraine)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3277-5.ch001
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The first chapter contains definitions of the main concepts in this book: instrumentation and control (I&C) system, individual and overall I&C system, central part of the I&C system and peripheral equipment, software-hardware complex (SHC), commercial of the shelf products (COTS), platforms (equipment family), functional safety. Differences between the SHC and I&C systems are explained. General information about I&C systems, based on the use facilities for obtaining, transfer, processing, and display of data, is provided. The main peculiarities of I&C systems, which are described in more detail in further chapters of this book, are considered. Information about functional safety of NPP I&C systems is described. A brief description of general aspects of cyber security of NPP I&C systems is given.
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Formation of a new scientific and technical trend is nearly always followed with discussions, occurred due to initial uncertainty of used terminology. I&C systems intended for nuclear power plants are not an exception. There are several glossaries related to this trend, in particular: Rozenberg & Bobryakov, 2003; IAEA, 2007, developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); IEC, 2019, developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In the book IAEA, 2011 prepared by an international group of, specialists under the auspices of the IAEA, general concepts applicable to NPP I&C systems, and given description of I&C systems and their life cycle are considered. Moreover, definitions of used terms are provided in many international and national regulatory documents related to individual tasks of design and/or operation of NPP I&C systems.

Authors decided to describe their vision of development trends of NPP I&C systems, which are performed in practice in the process of modernization of current and designing of new systems.

Recent years are characterized by rapid development of electronics, digital computer technologies, information technologies, which are more widely used in the process of design of I&C systems. Advantages of these systems are the following:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Platform (Equipment Family): Set of hardware and software components that may work co-operatively in one or more defined architectures (configurations). An equipment family usually provides a number of standard functionalities (e.g. application functions library) that may be combined to generate specific application software.

Overall I&C System: A system providing monitoring and control of all technological systems and equipment at NPP or individual NPP power generating unit.

Component: A discrete element of a system. A component may be hardware or software and may be subdivided into other components. Examples are wires, transistors, integrate circuits, motors, relays, solenoids.

Human-Machine Interface (HMI): The interface between operating staff and I&C system and computer systems linked with plant. The interface includes displays, controls, and the Operator Support System interface.

Instrumentation and Control (I&C) System: System, based on electrical and/or programmable electronic technology, performing I&C functions as well as service and monitoring functions related to the operation of the system itself. The term is used as a general term which encompasses all elements of the system such as internal power supplies, sensors and other input devices, data highways and other communication paths, interfaces to actuators and other output devices.

Functional Safety of the NPP I&C System: The property of this system to perform all the necessary functions important to safety, maintain the required properties and meet the specified characteristics in all modes and conditions stipulated by the project.

Software-Hardware Complex (SHC): Functionally complete item in the form of one or several independently operated devices with built-in software, which are interconnected through electric and/or optic cables, with peripheral equipment of the same system and with other I&C systems. SHC is usually supplied to customer as a set with necessary service equipment, repair and recovery reserve, operating and software documentation.

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