Prospects for Energy Supply of the Arctic Zone Objects of Russia Using Frost-Resistant Solar Modules

Prospects for Energy Supply of the Arctic Zone Objects of Russia Using Frost-Resistant Solar Modules

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3970-5.ch008
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The scientific work is devoted to the prospect of using frost-resistant solar modules with extended service life of various designs for energy supply of infrastructure facilities of the Arctic zone of Russia. The general characteristic of the region under consideration is given, and its energy specifics, directions of energy development based on renewable energy sources are considered. In the work, frost-resistant planar photovoltaic modules and solar roofing panels with an extended service life for power supply of objects are proposed. For simultaneous heat and electrical generation, frost-resistant planar photovoltaic thermal roofing panels and concentrator solar installation with high-voltage matrix solar modules with a voltage of 1000 V and an electrical efficiency of up to 28% are proposed. The considered solar modules have an extended rated power period due to the use of the technology of sealing solar cells with a two-component polysiloxane compound and are able to work effectively at large negative ambient temperatures and large ranges of its fluctuations.
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Arctic Zones Of The Russian Federation And Prerequisites For The Development Of Energy Based On Renewable Energy Sources

The Arctic is defined as the area around the North Pole, including the Arctic Ocean and surrounding areas. The southern border is conditional, there is no clear concept of the territory of the Arctic, it can be drawn along the southern border of the Arctic climatic zone (the dominance zone of the Arctic air masses), the zone of Arctic deserts or the tundra zone, or, for example, “mechanically” – along the Arctic Circle (Figure 1) ( The Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF) is a heterogeneous region that requires a differentiated approach to the development of energy from renewable energy sources (RES).

Figure 1.

Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and soil temperature in the summer in a depth of 40 centimeters in this area


With a certain degree of conventionality and administratively, the concept of the Arctic can include the Murmansk region, the coastal regions of the Arkhangelsk region, the territories of the Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous regions, the polar regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Yakutia and Chukotka, and also the islands of the Arctic Ocean of the Russian sector of the Arctic. In general, the Russian Arctic is about 4 million km2 of territory and more than 1,5 million people.

In turn, the Russian Arctic can also, with a certain degree of conventionality, be divided into the “Near Arctic” and “Far Arctic”, the border between which can be drawn along the lower reaches of the Yenisei. Murmansk region (Kola Peninsula) enters the Near Arctic zone, north of the Arkhangelsk region and Nenets autonomous region, Yamal. These territories, in turn, have their own isolation and specificity.

The Near Arctic as a whole – it is more than 90% of the population, industry and, in general, the economy, the comparative accessibility of the territory - not only by sea, but also by rail, milder natural conditions. It is in the Near Arctic that the currently developed reserves of fossil hydrocarbons are concentrated.

The natural resource potential of renewable energy in the Near Arctic is large, highly diversified and includes: bioresources: peat reserves, locally (Arkhangelsk region) – waste from woodworking industries; hydropower: hydropower of small rivers (Kola Peninsula, Subpolar and Polar Urals); water resources: tidal energy (bays of the White and Barents Seas); wind energy resources; solar resources (in summer); geothermal resources (probably most associated with the Kola Peninsula).

In addition, the Near Arctic is a territory where renewable energy development projects (mainly related to the Kola Peninsula) were carried out in Soviet times, in particular, Kislogubskaya tidal power plant and small hydropower plants. In the post-Soviet era, a number of wind energy projects of various sizes are also being implemented in the Murmansk region.

At the same time, “traditional” energy and network energy supply are developed in the Near Arctic. The largest energy facility is the Kola nuclear power plant; a number of thermal power plants and hydroelectric power stations are operating; also, the largest hydrocarbon reserves in Russia (the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous region the Nenets region) are available and developed in the Near Arctic.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Solar Radiation Intensity: The density of solar radiation (energy illumination), coming per unit area of the photoelectric module.

Solar Concentrator: A technical device designed to focus solar radiation into a focal spot with an increase in the concentration of solar radiation.

Standard Conditions for Testing the Solar Cell: Test conditions, regulated by the density of the solar energy flux of 1000 W/m 2 and the temperature of photovoltaic solar cells of 25 °C.

Solar Battery: A combination of photoelectric converters (photocells) – semiconductor devices that directly convert solar energy into direct electric current, in contrast to solar collectors that which heat the coolant.

Optimization: The process of maximizing profitable characteristics, ratios and minimizing costs.

Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation: Part of the territory of Russia, including the polar basin and the Arctic belt, which also includes the adjacent shelf with islands of mainland origin.

Cooling Radiator: A technical device used for removing heat for a liquid or gaseous coolant from a cooled object in order to cool the object and heat the coolant.

Finite Element Analysis System: A software package based on a numerical method for solving partial differential equations, as well as integral equations arising in solving problems of applied physics, which is widely used to solve problems of deformable solid mechanics, heat exchange, hydrodynamics and electrodynamics.

Photovoltaic Thermal Module: A solar module, the design of which consists of photovoltaic solar cells for electrical conversion of solar radiation and heat absorber for their cooling and heat transfer to the coolant.

Receiving Surface: The surface of the photoelectric device/photovoltaic part of the device, which receives solar radiation.

Heat Accumulator: Device for heat accumulation for the purpose of its further use.

Modeling: The study of objects on their models; building and studying models of real-life objects, processes or phenomena in order to obtain explanations of these phenomena, as well as to predict phenomena that interest the researcher.

Computer-Aided Design System: An automated system that implements an information technology for performing design functions, is an organizational and technical system designed to automate the design process, consisting of personnel and a set of technical, software and other automation tools for its activities.

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