Public-Private-People Partnership Networks and Stakeholder Roles Within MaaS Ecosystems

Public-Private-People Partnership Networks and Stakeholder Roles Within MaaS Ecosystems

Jenni Eckhardt, Aki Aapaoja, Harri Haapasalo
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1614-0.ch002
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Mobility as a service (MaaS) is an emerging concept offering integrated mobility services. Combining different transport modes and services, as well as collaboration of stakeholders, are prerequisites for viable and attractive MaaS services. MaaS is expected to increase the sustainability and efficiency of transport. Public-private-people partnership (PPPP) networks are seen as a potential solution to meet these expectations, especially in rural areas. The purpose here is to present a PPPP network for MaaS, which integrates market-based mobility services and subsidized transportation. The chapter also describes the roles and responsibilities of primary and secondary MaaS stakeholders at different levels, including authority, service provider, MaaS operator, and user levels.
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Several trends and drivers are pushing demand for new mobility services. Targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions require measures such as new sources of low-emission fuel, technological development of vehicles, and improving the energy efficiency of transport systems through services (Särkijärvi, Jääskeläinen, & Lohko-Soner, 2018). New mobility concepts are seen as a significant opportunity to bring about low-carbon mobility (European Commission, 2017a). As public funding decreases, pressure is growing to produce more efficient subsidized transport services. Urbanization results in increased congestion, as well as land use and parking problems, while causing more challenges in rural areas to provide efficient transport and viable mobility services. Advances in technology and digitalization enable integrated travel chains and shared services via smartphones and mobile applications (e.g. Hallock & Inglis, 2015). User behavior is also changing; younger generations are not as keen to own a car and customers are more environmentally oriented and open to circular economy services (Heikkilä, 2014). It has been recognized that technology-enabled transportation services have the potential to reduce driving and car ownership (Hallock & Inglis, 2015). In addition, reduction of car ownership may also relate to life events and income reductions (Clark, Chatterjee, & Melia, 2016).

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an emerging concept of integrated transport services that is seen as a solution to tackling future mobility challenges and meeting new customer needs. In rural areas, MaaS can increase efficiency of transport and accessibility of remote areas (Eckhardt, Nykänen, Aapaoja, & Niemi, 2018). Public-private partnerships (PPP) have been recommended for MaaS (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016; Eckhardt et al., 2017a; Polis, 2017; ERTICO, 2018). PPP refers to cooperation between public-private actors in which they jointly develop services and share risks, costs and resources which are connected with these services (Van Ham & Koppenjan, 2001).

The objective of this chapter is to present a potential public-private-people partnership (PPPP) network for MaaS, bringing in the ‘people’ aspect in terms of prosuming, where users both use and produce services. The aim is also to identify stakeholders within the MaaS ecosystem and define their roles. The chapter deals with the following research questions:

  • What kind of PPPP networks can be created for rural MaaS?

  • Who are the stakeholders involved in MaaS ecosystems?

  • What are the roles and responsibilities of the identified stakeholders?

The chapter is structured as follows: A review of the literature describes the MaaS concept and relevant discussions on PPP and PPPP, as well as business and stakeholder networks. Next is a description of the adopted methodology (interviews and stakeholder workshops) and results for the PPPP network in the rural context and MaaS stakeholders, including roles and responsibilities. The results are discussed and followed by concluding remarks.


Context And Literature Review

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an emerging concept of transport services. MaaS refers to “multimodal and sustainable mobility services addressing customers' transport needs by integrating planning and payment on a one-stop-shop principle” (MAASiFiE, 2016). Hietanen (2014) defines MaaS as “a mobility distribution model in which a customer’s primary transportation needs are met over one interface and are offered by a service provider” (p. 2). MaaS could offer travelers easy, flexible, reliable, priceworthy and environmentally sustainable everyday travel, such as public transport, carsharing and car leasing, as well as more efficient goods shipping and delivery possibilities (European Commission, 2017b).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Statutory Transportation: A transportation service that according to legislation has to be offered to all citizens fulfilling certain criteria. This may refer to reduced mobility capabilities of handicapped and elderly people.

Public-Private-People Partnership: A form of collaboration between public and private sectors as well as users (‘people’). In the context of transport services, ‘people’ can be considered as prosumers.

Ridesourcing: A transport service based on smartphone application that connects passengers and drivers. Instead of commercial vehicles, drivers typically use their own car.

Demand-Responsive Transport: A transport service that operates according to client needs in a specific zone and time slots without predefined routes or schedules.

Peer-to-Peer: Private people offering services to other private people.

Ridesharing: Private people offering rides or goods deliveries to other private people.

Subsidized Transportation: A transportation service that is not fully market based and receives financial support from the public sector.

Prosumer: A consumer who also produces services. Regarding transport services, prosuming may refer, for example, to peer-to-peer carsharing, ridesharing of people and goods, and organized hitchhiking.

Mobility as a Service: A concept that integrates different transport services, such as public transport, sharing services and taxi. Services are offered on a one-stop-shop principle utilizing digitalization and including e.g. multimodal route planning and mobile ticketing and payment. Additional services may also be included, such as freight.

Collaborative Economy: Sharing, lending/borrowing, or renting products (e.g., vehicles) without the need to own them. Also participating in services together. A way to increase resource efficiency assisted by digital platforms.

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