Quantum Blockchain: A Systematic Review

Quantum Blockchain: A Systematic Review

Peter Nimbe, Benjamin Asubam Weyori, Jacob Mensah, Anokye Acheampong Amponsah, Adebayo Felix Adekoya, Emmanuel Adjei Domfeh
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 35
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5072-7.ch001
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Quantum blockchain is a distributed database that is decentralized, encrypted, and based on quantum information theory and computation. This comes as a result of the recent progress made in quantum computing and the need for quantum equivalents of classical blockchains. Algorithms, frameworks, models, tools, architectures, and databases, of which quantum blockchain is a part, are still being standardized. Recently, the growth of quantum information theory and computation has resulted in a rise in the number of research ongoing in this domain. This chapter presents an insight into quantum blockchain using the PRISMA technique with results registered and analyzed. The literature is analyzed based on some parameters or categorizations accompanied by graphical and tabular representations.
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This chapter seeks to provide some insight into quantum blockchain technology by presenting and analyzing relevant literature as well as proposing a framework to address land management and administration transparency.

The goal of this chapter is to

  • Identify literature on quantum blockchain

  • Categorize the literature on quantum blockchain.

  • Present results of categorization of literature in tabular and graphical formats.

  • Compare quantum blockchain to classical blockchain.

  • Propose a classical and quantum framework to address the issue of transparency when it comes to land management and administration.

  • Present future directions of quantum blockchain and unanswered questions

  • Outline the method and shortfalls of some of the quantum blockchain literature

Key Terms in this Chapter

Permissionless Blockchain: Also known as trustless or public blockchains, are open networks available to everyone to participate in the consensus process that blockchains use to validate transactions and data. They are fully decentralized across unknown parties.

Cryptography: Is the technique of securing information and communications through use of codes so that only those people for whom the information is intended can understand it and process it. Thus, preventing unauthorized access to information.

Permissioned Blockchain: Is a distributed ledger that is not publicly accessible. It can only be accessed by users with permissions. The users can only perform specific actions granted to them by the ledger administrators and are required to identify themselves through certificates or other digital means.

Identity Management: Is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources. This includes the identification, authentication and authorization of a person, or persons, to have access to applications, systems, or networks.

Signature Scheme: Is a technique to assure an entity's acknowledgment of having seen a certain digital message.

Cryptocurrency: Is a digital currency designed to work as a medium of exchange through a computer network that is not reliant on any central authority, such as a government or bank, to uphold or maintain it.

Asynchronous Blockchain: It is the blockchain network that can be designed whether to prioritize consistency or availability. If the network wants to prioritize availability, all transactions are added without any downtime. If the network wants to prioritize consistency, some transactions might not be processed or halted until all the previous transactions are confirmed.

Transparency: Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness, communication, and accountability.

Supply Chain: Is a network of individuals and companies who are involved in creating a product and delivering it to the consumer.

Blockchain: Traditional Blockchain which uses pre-quantum cryptography and not secure from quantum attacks.

Tokenization: Is the process of exchanging sensitive data for nonsensitive data called “tokens” that can be used in a database or internal system without bringing it into scope.

Quantum Key Distribution: Is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages.

Quantum-Resistant Blockchain: Blockchain systems with post-quantum cryptography i.e. post-quantum public-private key, hashing and related protocols.

Lattice Cryptosystem: Is a generic term for construction of cryptographic primitives or scheme consisting of a set of algorithms that involve lattices, and is used to convert plaintext to ciphertext to encode or decode messages securely.

Quantum Blockchain: Blockchain systems running in Quantum Computers.

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