Rethinking Education System for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Rethinking Education System for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia) and Frank Boateng (University of Mines and Technology, Ghana)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9810-7.ch001

Abstract

The use of automation and artificial intelligence in recent times has created two options for stakeholders in the global business environment. The stakeholders are capable of becoming the agents or victims of inevitable transformation. This chapter explores a review of education system across the globe in building human capital to address the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities in the fourth industrial revolution. This chapter combines a literature review approach and personal observation in higher education institutions in advancing education system for the fourth industrial revolution. The use of chatbot as a training needs assessment technique is effective in collecting variety of information about needs, problems, potential problems, perceptions, attitudes, and opinions in the digital age. This chapter holds that teaching contents and techniques should be structured in line with the learners' objectives, students' needs, and skills in high demand by employers in the fourth industrial revolution.
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Background

The first industrial revolution occurred in the 18th century, which started with the mechanisation of production starting with water and steam pressure (Noble, 2017; Tann, 2015). This was characterised as the after war economic roar, it consisted of technological advancement in the production and manufacturing sectors. Troxler (2013) puts it that mechanization, centralized factories and industrial capitalists were introduced in the first industrial revolution. Accordingly, the flagship machine was the steam engine, which created a division between labour and capital. The factory working conditions were inhuman and deplorable. There were no laws that protected labour in the early days of the first industrial revolution in the UK. In Africa for example, the Dutch and English colonised South Africa (SA); technology was brought into the country to enhance production in the mines asbestos, gold, and other metals, as well as cotton plants (Fennimore, 2013). Also exploiting the Africans into performing cheap labour and taking away their lands, as well as some atrocities committed by the colonial masters in Africa (Fennimore, 2013).

The second industrial revolution brought automation, scientific management and management consultants (Troxler, 2013). Its flagship machine was the conveyor belt, its social effect was the division between white-collar and blue-collar work. The second industrial revolution consisted of an electrification boom which occurred towards the end of the 19th Century. The term Industry 2.0 was characterised by separate steps being executed by workers specialised in respective areas (Wisskirchen et al., 2017). Serial production was born. At the same time, automatically manufactured goods were transported to different continents for the first time. That was the beginning of aviation. Later was the introduction of a PC/Computer, then later an introduction of electronic appliances. Computer hardware and software became much cheaper and accessible, and became a tool that solved problems and would identify and correct solutions faster than human beings would in mathematics, logical conclusions, data capturing, and storing files. There was no longer the need for basic human calculation. Replacement of manufacturing jobs occurred, however low-wage employment as well as high paid jobs continued.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Automation: Automatic application systems to improve operational reliability and efficiency in the digital age.

Virtual Reality: A learning experience via simulation bringing interactive and similar real-world experience in an artificial platform.

Chabot: An artificial intelligence developed to collect or provide online information to customers or learners interactively.

Artificial Intelligence: The simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.

Wearable Tech: Adoption audio-visual technology to advance teaching and learning experience through simulation, it makes augmented and virtual reality possible.

Augment Reality: A computer-generated images of real-world environment to expose learners to experiential learning without the fear of real-world repercussion.

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