Strategies of Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Industry 4.0 Framework for Inclusive and Social Prosperity

Strategies of Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Industry 4.0 Framework for Inclusive and Social Prosperity

Erhan İşcan (Cukurova University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7958-8.ch002


The last two decades have witnessed unpredictable transformations in knowledge-related areas. The main reason for this change is the fourth industrial revolution, a knowledge revolution affecting fields like the bioeconomy. The third industrial revolution, which induced the use of fossil-based energy sources, created a major global problem. Likewise, the third industrial revolution introduced the problem of the excess usage of food, animals, water, and other resources. Industry 4.0 offers an efficient solution to excessive tendencies. This chapter aims to analyze changes and offer strategies in the bioeconomy framework within Industry 4.0.
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Background: A History Of Revolution, Emergence Of Industry 4.0, And The Agricultural Sector

History reveals seven critical transitions of humankind. Three of these transitions focus on agriculture and the volume of food production. Four of the transitions are industrial, focusing on mechanization. First, the Neolithic revolution (or the first agricultural revolution) is a basic and critical revolution that changed humankind from hunter-gatherers to a farming society. About 14,000 years ago, humankind domesticated plants like wheat, barley, peas, and livestock. The Neolithic revolution increased life expectancy and improved human life by establishing cities with more food. These developments promoted new work, jobs, merchandising, and trade. Specializations introduced skilled professions. Society became more complex, requiring new rules. This need brought about an authoritative government.

After 15,000 years, humankind witnessed the second agricultural revolution, which coincided with the industrial revolution. Between the 17th century and the green revolution of the 1940s, farmers became more capable. They increased productivity with ideas like selective breeding, crop rotation, and fertilizers. The industrial revolution also brought farm machines and tools, increasing productivity and production in a short amount of time. Demographics changed as farmers replaced machines with workers. More food affected the rapid growth of cities as people stopped producing food for self-consumption. These changes in society and production promoted the industrial revolution.

The third revolution, termed the green revolution, affected the life of humankind. Genetically engineered crops and/or genetically modified organisms opened a new stage in agriculture and the economic sector. The yield of wheat increased fourfold in 25 years; many countries became self-sufficient. The green revolution satisfied an increasing demand of food due to the increasing population of a healthier society.

The three agricultural revolutions increased the quantity of food and promoted the industrial revolution, the key driver of modern society’s way of life. In the middle of the 18th century, the economic system changed radically with the invention of James Watt’s steam machine. The system moved from an agrarian economy to an industrial economy. New tools and/or machines enabled large-scale production using new materials. Factories grew as labor became more important. Transportation, communication, and steam-powered machines and vehicles were also key to the first industrial revolution. The growth of agricultural and industrial production was a new source of wealth. Increasing productivity promoted international trade and national prosperity.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy: The process of transforming life science knowledge into new, sustainable, eco-efficient, and competitive products.

Circular Economy: Economics that refers to taking production as a basis for conversion and recycling instead of use and destruction.

Renewable Biomass: Energy sources derived from organic matter, include crop, waste, soybean, and garbage.

Food Security: The condition in which people always have physical, social, and economic access to enough safe and nutritious food. This food meets dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

Green Economy: A resilient economy that provides a better quality of life for all within the ecological limits of the planet.

Bio-Based Products: Products wholly or partly derived from biomass, including plants, trees, and animals.

Blue Economy: A sustainable use of oceans for economic growth.

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