The Evolution of Learning and Technological Innovation: Preparing Students for Successful Careers

The Evolution of Learning and Technological Innovation: Preparing Students for Successful Careers

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-7442-6.ch004
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The chapter describes the major guiding learning theories and paradigms, and summarizes classic and recent instruction methodologies while exploring technology's impact on learning. An interesting finding is that while methods for teaching children differed from adult ones in the past, current approaches to adult learning adopt methodologies that were developed for children, such as gamification, to make learning feasible, consistent, engaging, and motivating. The chapter also reports on the findings of a case study within a UK university setting employing the flipped classroom approach. The chapter concludes by connecting learning to career sustainability in ecosystems and providing practice recommendations.
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Learning Theories And Their Paradigms

Learning is traditionally defined as “the process of acquiring knowledge and skills, and a change in individual behavior as a result of some experience” (Saks & Haccoun, 2018, p. 42) or as “a change of state of the human being that is remembered and that makes possible a corresponding change in the individual's behavior in a given type of situation” (Gagne, 1948, p. 377).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Gamification in Learning: involves using game-based elements such as point scoring, peer competition, teamwork, and score tables to help students comprehend new information, test their knowledge and motivate them.

Humanistic Learning: this type of learning is student-centered and encourages the learners to take control of their learning. The learners make choices that can range from daily activities to future goals.

Behaviorism: pays attention to students' actions and assesses whether they are learning. The central belief is that students learn through reinforcement - constant feedback that tells them whether their actions are right or wrong. The effectiveness of their learning comes from test scores and homework marks.

Role-Play: is a method that allows students to explore various situations by interacting with other people to develop experiences and different strategies in a supported environment. Students might play a role similar to their own experience or the opposite part of the interaction. Both options provide the possibility of learning, encouraging the learner to develop an understanding of the situation.

Constructivism: argues that learners construct knowledge rather than passively take in information. As people experience the world and reflect upon those experiences, they build their representations and assimilate new information into their pre-existing understanding.

Flipped Learning: is a method that prioritizes active learning during class time by allocating to students lecture materials to be considered at home or outside of class.

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): The terms university and HEIs have mainly become synonymous. Universities of sciences are HEIs accredited to issue advanced academic degrees in each field of study. Other HEIs include universities of applied sciences and business schools where education is ‘higher’, i.e., advanced.

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