The Influence of Institutional Environment on Environmental Practices and Its Impact on Regional Development: A Gender Perspective

The Influence of Institutional Environment on Environmental Practices and Its Impact on Regional Development: A Gender Perspective

María Dolores Sánchez-Fernández (University of A Coruña, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3525-6.ch019

Abstract

This chapter studied the institutional influence associated to environmental practices in hotels. The aim was to interpret whether it was the normative, coercive or mimetic pressures (Institutional pressures) that influenced the three, four and five star hotels in north of Portugal and Galicia (a gender perspective). In order to accomplish these objectives, the author used an investigation model that connects institutional context pressures with environmental practices and environmental practices with legitimacy. To study used the Institutional Theory as theoretical reference.
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Introduction

This work studied the institutional influence associated to quality practices in the hotels of Northern Portugal. The aim was to decipher whether it was the normative, coercive or mimetic pressures (Institutional pressures) (DiMaggio & Powell, 1991) that influenced the three, four and five star hotels of the north of Portugal and Galicia. In order to accomplish these objectives, we used an investigation model that connects institutional context pressures with environmental practices and environmental practices with legitimacy. Despite the fact that not much attention has been dedicated to this by academic literature it is considered to be vital to study these factors. To remedy this situation, Institutional Theory was used in this study as theoretical reference; in other words, the results obtained contribute to the progress under this theory.

The hypotheses in Institutional Theory have been subject of study and verification by various authors (Moyano-Fuentes, 2001; Restrepo & Rosero, 2002; Arend & Ferraz, 2005; Dias et al., 2006; Bastidas & Moreno, 2006; Murillo et al., 2010; Rivera, 2004; Shah & Rivera, 2007; Riquel, 2010; Zhu et al., 2011; Vargas-Sánchez & Riquel-Ligero, 2012; Zapata & Hall, 2012; Shah & Rivera, 2013; Rivera, 2004; Llamas-Sanchez et al., 2013; Mellinger, 2014; and Muñoz-Fernández, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez & Santos-Roldan, 2016) in various kinds of organizations (golf courses, public administrations, non-profit making human services organisations). We can draw attention to recent studies by Sanchez-Fernández et al. (2014) and sustainable practices by Glover et al. (2014) in the area of social responsibility under this framework.

Nonetheless, the repercussion of environmental practices on the institutional environment (a gender perspective) has not been much explored by many empirical studies. The aim of this study was to decipher what the influences of institutional pressures on profit-gaining organizations (hotels) were in a geographically delimited area (Northern Portugal and Galicia).

One of Eurorregion’s leading economic motors is its tourism sector. Official statistics and authors of the kind of Gessa et al. (2008) and Álvarez et al. (2013) recognize the enormous economic importance this sector has in Portugal and Spain (a gender perspective). This work studied the hotel subsector and its environmental practices in the tourism sector. For uniformity’s sake the three, four and five star hotels in Northern Portugal and Galicia were chosen as the study unit.

Key Terms in this Chapter

PLS: A term known as Partial Least Square. This is an approach to causal modeling. It is a technique which allows reflecting the theoretical and empirical conditions of behavior. Normally this technique is applied when the theoretical situations are not strong enough and there is little information available. It is a technique that focuses on predictive causal analysis and the results can be interpreted as a step backwards.

Isomorphism: The term 'isomorphism' means 'the same way”. It seeks to highlight the idea that there are formal similarities and correspondence between different types of systems. The word isomorphism refers to the construction of systems models similar to the original model. In our study, isomorphism behavior refers to the different companies behaving in a similar way to the model set out in our investigation.

Reliability: It is a parameter which measures consistency. In our work reliability can measure the construct´s consistency (reliability of the construct) or the indicator´s consistency (individual reliability).

Reflective Indicators: These are caused by construct; a symptom of the construct symptom. They can be directly measured and are correlated among each other. In the model, they are represented by a rectangle and joined to construct by means of an arrow in the model. The arrowhead is directed at the rectangle (indicator).

Formative Indicators: These are the cause of the construct. They can be directly measured and are not correlated among each other. They are represented by a rectangle and joined to construct by means of an arrow in the model. The arrowhead is directed at the circle (construct).

Construct: A set of indicators related to the construct. They cannot be directly measured which signifies that a set of items is necessary. They are also known as latent variables. Constructs can be made up of reflective or formative indicators. They are represented by a circle in the model.

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