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What is Nonlinear Components of Heart Rate Fluctuation

Research Advancements in Smart Technology, Optimization, and Renewable Energy
Mathematically, nonlinear system is defined as that the change in the output is not proportional to the change of the input. In heart rate fluctuations, nonlinear components are observed as those not forming a peak in power spectrum. In healthy peoples, the power of nonlinear components shows 1/ f distribution, i.e., the power inversely correlated with frequency. This is also known as a characteristic of fractal dynamics, in which values exhibit persistent long-range negative correlations, that is, the larger (smaller) values tend to be followed by smaller (larger) values in all time scales.
Published in Chapter:
Prediction of Menstrual Cycle Phase by Wearable Heart Rate Sensor
Junichiro Hayano (Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Japan) and Emi Yuda (Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3970-5.ch001
The prediction of the menstrual cycle phase and fertility window by easily measurable bio-signals is an unmet need and such technological development will greatly contribute to women's QoL. Although many studies have reported differences in autonomic indices of heart rate variability (HRV) between follicular and luteal phases, they have not yet reached the level that can predict the menstrual cycle phases. The recent development of wearable sensors-enabled heart rate monitoring during daily life. The long-term heart rate data obtained by them carry plenty of information, and the information that can be extracted by conventional HRV analysis is only a limited part of it. This chapter introduces comprehensive analyses of long-term heart rate data that may be useful for revealing their associations with the menstrual cycle phase.
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