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What is Watermarking

Encyclopedia of Healthcare Information Systems
Inserting or embedding a kind of digital information inside other kinds or similar kinds of digital information.
Published in Chapter:
A Novel Blind Wavelet Base Watermarking of ECG Signals on Medical Images Using EZW Algorithm
Mohammad Saleh Nambakhsh (King’s College London, UK) and M. Shiva (California State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-889-5.ch125
Exchange of databases between hospitals needs efficient and reliable transmission and storage techniques to cut down the cost of health care. This exchange involves a large amount of vital patient information such as biosignals and medical images. Interleaving one form of data such as 1-D signal over digital images can combine the advantages of data security with efficient memory utilization (Norris, Englehart & Lovely, 2001), but nothing prevents the user from manipulating or copying the decrypted data for illegal uses. Embedding vital information of patients inside their scan images will help physicians make a better diagnosis of a disease. In order to solve these issues, watermark algorithms have been proposed as a way to complement the encryption processes and provide some tools to track the retransmission and manipulation of multimedia contents (Barni, Podilchuk, Bartolini & Delp, 2001; Vallabha, 2003). A watermarking system is based on an imperceptible insertion of a watermark (a signal) in an image. This technique is adapted here for interleaving graphical ECG signals within medical images to reduce storage and transmission overheads as well as helping for computer-aided diagnostics system. In this chapter, we present a new wavelet-based watermarking method combined with the EZW coder. The principle is to replace significant wavelet coefficients of ECG signals by the corresponding significant wavelet coefficients belonging to the host image, which is much bigger in size than the mark signal. This chapter presents a brief introduction to watermarking and the EZW coder that acts as a platform for our watermarking algorithm.
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More Results
Data Hiding Schemes Based on Singular Value Decomposition
The process of hiding digital information in a carrier signal; the hidden information should, but does not need to contain a relation to the carrier signal. Digital watermarks may be used to verify the authenticity or integrity of the carrier signal or to show the identity of its owners. It is prominently used for tracing copyright infringements and for banknote authentication.
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Digital Rights Management in Peer To Peer Cultural Networks
The watermarking algorithms are applying watermarks (invisible information in bitstreams) to digital images.
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Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Watermarking is a well-known technique used to hide data or information imperceptibly within image, audio, or video so that valuable contents can be protected.
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Watermarking of Data Using Biometrics
The process of embedding information/data of any type into another digital signal(audio/video/text/image), to verify its authenticity or owner identification. It is similar to paper/currency notes bearing visible watermarks for visual authentication and identification. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time. It may be visible (where watermark is visible in the picture/video) or invisible (not visible to naked eye but can be extracted digitally).
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Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
The embedding of a mark within a media object. The mark can later on be retrieved from the media.
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Digital Video Watermarking Using Diverse Watermarking Schemes
It is the process of embedding a logo or digital signature in a media (image, video and other) for Copyright protection.
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Reversible Watermarking
Imperceptible embedding of data into digital hosts (images, audio, video, text, etc.).
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Music Score Watermarking
Process of inserting a hidden code or message into a digital or analog object. As opposed to steganography, it has the additional notion of robustness against attacks. As the name suggests, the additional data (the watermark) is added in order to protect the digital document from copyright infringements. Even if the existence of the hidden information is known, it has to be hard for an attacker to destroy the embedded watermark without destroying the data itself.
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Reviewing the Security Features in Contemporary Security Policies and Models for Multiple Platforms
It is a method which is used for checking signal’s authentication and integrity. It achieves its goal by covering the digital information behind the carrier signal.
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Authentication and Error Resilience in Images Transmitted through Open Environment
It is a pattern of bits inserted into a digital image, audio or video file that identifies the file's copyright information (author, rights, etc.).
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Steganography Using Biometrics
It is a data hiding technique which primary motive is to authenticate. Watermarking can be visible or invisible. Here the cover image is also important along with the embedded message. Robustness is the main criteria for selection of embedding algorithm.
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