Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: A Music History Exhibition

Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: A Music History Exhibition

José Duarte Cardoso Gomes, Mauro Jorge Guerreiro Figueiredo, Lúcia da Graça Cruz Domingues Amante, Cristina Maria Cardoso Gomes
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7371-5.ch014
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Augmented reality (AR) allows computer-generated imagery information overlays onto a live real-world environment in real time. Technological advances in mobile computing devices (MCD) such as smartphones and tablets (internet access, built-in cameras and GPS) made a greater number of AR applications available. This chapter presents the Augmented Reality Musical Gallery (ARMG) exhibition, enhanced by AR. ARMG, focused on twentieth century music history, and aimed at the students from the 2nd Cycle of basic education in Portuguese public schools. In this chapter, the authors introduce AR technology and address topics like constructivism, art education, student motivation, and informal learning environments. They conclude by presenting the first two parts of the ongoing research conducted among a sample group of students contemplating the experiment in an educational context.
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Augmented Reality

The first AR prototypes appeared in the late 1960’s as a result from Ivan Sutherland´s and his students work in the Harvard and Utah Universities. AR is a variation of the Virtual Environments, also known as Virtual Worlds or Virtual Reality (VR).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Usability: Measure that relates to a product's potential to accomplish the goals of a user. In ICT, it’s often used regarding software applications or web sites, but the concept is also used for any product designed to accomplish a determined task.

Mobile Computing Devices: Handheld computers that can be easily carried around by users. Currently, the most usual and widespread mobile devices are smartphones, tablets, and e-readers.

Augmented Reality: A technology that allows real-time overlapping of digital content to real-world objects or environments. At present, is widely available to designers, by using Web 2.0 tools requiring no programming skills, and to users by using mobile computing devices such as smartphones or tablets.

Affordances: The concept, initially proposed by J. Gibson, relates to the functional properties of an object, which allows it to be used in a certain environment. Affordances can be positive or negative characteristics that occur between subjects and objects. In education, the term relates to educational interventions and to students learning characteristics.

Motivation: Internal (intrinsic) or external (extrinsic) factors that stimulate people toward achieving a certain goal. Motivated actions may encompass the choice of tasks, effort, persistence, and achievement.

Constructivism: Psychological and philosophical perspective based on hypothesis and research by Piaget and Vygotsky contending that individuals work or construct significant parts of what they understand and learn, by meditating on their personal experiences and previous knowledge.

Informal learning environments: Relates to the direction of who controls and defines the learning objectives and goals. In a formal learning environment, the teacher sets the goal and objectives. On informal learning environments, the learner has a high degree of freedom in setting his learning goals and objectives.

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