Creative Clusters of Urbanized Cities as a Factor for Increasing Global Economic Efficiency

Creative Clusters of Urbanized Cities as a Factor for Increasing Global Economic Efficiency

Tatiana Podolskaya (Russian Presidential Academy of Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russia), Aleksey Baranov (Russian Presidential Academy of Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russia) and Ludmila Tomashevskaya (Russian Presidential Academy of Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0111-5.ch015

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors analyze theoretical approaches to definition and classification of creative clusters, including used by the international economic organizations. The role and influence of creative economy for modern development of the urbanized cities is shown. In the chapter, the production factor which is the basis for the creation of added value in a creative economy is designated. The authors show the influences of the creative industries on the development of the world economy by using relevant analytical materials and statistical data. Such mechanisms of change of the urbanized cities' public spaces as placemaking and redevelopment are described. The comparative analysis of a creative economy's key indicators of the world capitals – leaders in development of the creative environment in dynamics is carried out. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Creativity Index and the interrelation of creativity level with urban saturation and competitiveness of the countries and cities.
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Theoretical Approaches To Definition Of Creative Cluster In Economy And Economics

The influence of culture throughout the entire evolutionary development of human society is immense, but it was the formation of post-industrial economy, in which consumption of services exceeded 50%, that turned the creative component into one of the key elements of today’s development. The term “creativity” (from the Latin creatio – creation) was widely used in psychology in the 1950s. Creativity can be not only as an individual feature but also as a property of complexly organized systems of relations. This understanding of creativity has become the basis for the emergence of the term “creative economy” (Belokrylova, 2013). It was first introduced in publication “The 21st Century Corporation: The Creative Economy” in the Business Week magazine (The Creative Economy, 2000).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Redevelopment of Industrial Sites: and similar areas is another tool and “base” for creative industries. In contrast to creative quarters or placemaking, redevelopment does not require significant reformatting of urban environment with change in traffic patterns, reconstructing streets etc. This tool can be most effective in cases of targeted support of creative industries. Industrial site redevelopment makes it possible to substantially increase rental income under low volume of initial investments.

Creative Industry: A system of creative, innovative, scientific and economic relations in the course of developing and launching completely new products and working out original solutions for human resources’ development in parallel to making profit. Creative industries are based on generating intellectual results, products or services, which are perceived by consumers as something brand new.

The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN): A project, which was launched in 2004 with the aim of developing cooperation within and between cities. It views creativity as a strategic factor of sustainable urban development. Currently, the UCCN network includes 180 cities working to achieve the common goal, declared within the framework of this project: deployment of creative industries within the development strategies of these territories and active cooperation worldwide.

Placemaking: One of the popular forms of public urban space transformation. The public urban space transformation is the reconstruction of city’s area, where the pedestrian zones were considerably increased, bicycle lanes were created, modern street lamps and comfortable, beautiful benches were installed, facades and signs were repaired. This innovative community-driven bottom-up approach to area development was introduced in Russia only in the 21st century.

Creative Economy: A combination of specific socioeconomic relations arising from production, distribution, exchange and consumption, based on the non-standard, non-traditional, un-copyable ideas, concepts, strategies, activities, providing an effective solution to social and economic problems on the basis of new knowledge, principally qualitative new solutions.

Creative City: One of the base forms of creative spaces organization, which have emerged in the world economy. Creative cities aim to shape the local innovative environment, with the products and services made there to be introduced primarily in that very city agglomeration. It is a modern-day paradox that with almost unlimited Internet access and ever-increasing number of virtual offices, almost all major technology companies still tend to concentrate in compact urban mega centers such as London, Berlin, San Francisco, Helsinki and others.

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