Emotional Design in Multimedia and Measuring Learning Emotions

Emotional Design in Multimedia and Measuring Learning Emotions

Ahmet Murat Uzun (Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey) and Zahide Yıldırım (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3476-2.ch043
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Abstract

Cognitive learning theories have extensively been used for designing effective and efficient multimedia materials. Yet, these theories have been limited to cognitive aspects of learning. With the introduction of the recent cognitive-affective theories, emotional and motivational factors are generating considerable interest. Recently, emotional design approach has been introduced by the researchers. Emotional design refers to manipulating visual appeal of a product or a learning material in an effort to induce positive emotions and thereby learning. Although emotional design approach is interesting, the research on the issue is at the beginning. What is more, studies mostly adopted paper-based measures that are based on self-report to detect learning emotions. Given this rationale, the aim of this chapter is to introduce emotional design approach used in multimedia, to mention different techniques for inducing positive emotions, and to address research on the topic. It also discusses objective tools identifying learning emotions with a focus on emWave emotion recognition technology.
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Background

Cognition, emotion, and motivation are all associated with learning (Schiefele, 1987). The limitation of the pure cognitivist approach is that they regard mind and thinking as solely objective, cold, mechanical, and rational (Dai & Sternberg, 2004). However, it is recognized that emotions and thinking are inseparable and that everything we do is linked with emotions (Barry, 1997; Norman, 2004). Hence, a more integrative approach dealing with affective issues in multimedia is needed (Park, Flowerday, et al., 2015). In this section, motivational and emotional issues in multimedia learning are discussed.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Emotional Design: Manipulating visual appeal of a product to evoke appropriate certain emotions.

Cognitive Load Theory: A theory, which posits that effective learning occurs if instruction is designed in a manner that is compatible with the human’s limited cognitive capacity by lowering extraneous load, managing intrinsic load and fostering germane load.

Coherence: A psychophysiological state when increased synchronization and harmony is observed between SNS and PNS, psychological and physiological functions, reflecting a sine wave like ordered and harmonious heart rhythm pattern indicating that one tends to feel positive emotions.

Emotion: People’s appraisal of and reaction to specific objects or facts to move forward or away from them, which evokes affective experiences such as pleasure/displeasure and arousal that are believed to affect psychological and physiological processes.

Multimedia Learning: A cognitive theory of learning, which refers to learning from different sources of information such as words and pictures, in which words are presented as printed, on-screen text or audio narrations and pictures are presented as graphics, diagrams or animations.

Heart Rate Variability (HRV): An index value calculated based on the changes in Heart Rate (HR) between different heartbeats occurring at a certain time interval.

Anthropomorphism: A pedagogical strategy, in which human qualities are ascribed to nonhuman beings to make the objects more interesting.

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