Leadership Models

Leadership Models

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3763-3.ch006
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Leaders gain followers because they have various traits, concepts, and skills that appeal to followers. The history of leadership through the centuries has been dominated by men who have led because of their physical characteristics, personal charisma, fast wit, or their ability to relate to their followers. Do women have the same traits? Indeed! However, as the history briefly described and as this chapter will point out, it is primarily men who have been allowed to influence and impact their countries, communities, and institutions. Their leadership has, in fact, been based on and perpetuated by a hierarchical society where most women have not had a chance to control or even advance in the pre-established structures. Only a few Hispanic women/Latinas have been able to reach those positions and who should be proud of giving other women a glimpse into a way that they can break this cycle that has lasted for hundreds and thousands of years. These women leaders are now opening Hispanic women's and Latinas' pathways into higher education.
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What Is Leadership?

Leadership is not a modern concept. History can easily point to many early civilizations that had complex forms of leadership. The idea was already clearly conceptualized in Biblical times by the effectiveness of following a supreme leader and effects of being a new nation (Kings 1990; Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin & Taherdoost, 2016; Northouse, 2020; Sands, 2015). Leadership is influencing. Something that all leaders have in common are followers. (Vroom & Jago, 2000). Kouzes and Posner (2018) defined leadership as “the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations” (p. xiii). Around 500 B.C., Confucius in his teachings on government stated that a leader’s qualities must include the willingness to be a learner, and to practice frugality, to show humility, and to exhibit commitment, confidence, and loyalty and that a leader should be virtuous (Sands, 2015). Aristotle (427-347 BC), the great philosopher, believed that a person becomes a leader as the result of socioeconomic status and relationships with others. He also classified a leader under five main virtues: (1) respect, (2) service, (3) honesty, (4) justice and (5) community. Interestingly enough, Aristotle omits any reference to organizational conflict which seldom appears in his vision of the ideal state where equality always prevails.

Leadership involves values. Without recognizing one’s own values there cannot be ethics to help leaders be sensitive to the needs of others (Gregory-Mina, 2009; Northouse & Lee, 2016; Takala, 1998). Northouse (2019) noted “leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal,” establishing that in such a process a leader affects, assists, helps others to meet their goals. A leader can be affected by followers and without mutual influence leadership simply would not exist (p.5). Leadership has been divided into many practices, such as distributed leadership theory which focuses on how to implement practices effectively within different contexts, diverse populations or various purposes at all levels in schools to generate more opportunities for change and foster improvement (Johnson & Greer, 2016; Harris, 2014). Northouse (2019) divided leadership into assigned leadership and emergent leadership. In assigned leadership someone is given a position within a company because of formal education or demonstrated traits. An emergent leader is when through communication, personality, a person initiates new ideas and within a period of time is being given the opportunity in the organization. According to Bolman and Deal (2013) in order to reframe any organization, it has to be analyzed in regard to their leadership, ethics, and their ability or willingness to change. Literature indicates that good leaders need to have the right “stuff” – such as vision, charisma, strength, commitment – in order to proceed effectively in situations. In the following table Bolman and Deal (2013) outline effective and ineffective leadership behaviors and how each leadership process affects their followers. Structurally, effective leaders are task-oriented, focusing on the analysis, logistics, facts and data while developing models of relationships. Humanly effective leaders have a servant heart, empower their followers and become facilitators, coaches, motivators, and have good interpersonal relationships with others. Politically effective leaders advocate for followers, mobilize resources and negotiate by building coalitions and networks while fighting for their organization’s goals. Symbolically effective leaders are those who are visionaries, creating scenarios where human beings erect symbols, create ceremonies or rituals that provide inspiration.

Table 1.
Bolman & Deal (2013) Leadership Frameworks
Effective LeaderStructuralHuman ResourcesPoliticalSymbolic
LeaderTask-orientedFacilitator, ServantAdvocateProphet or hero
Leader’s processDesign,
Prepare &
Builder of coalitionsInspire,
Frame experiences
Ineffective LeaderStructuralHuman ResourcesPoliticalSymbolic
LeaderTyrantLack of confidenceSilver tongue, Con artistExtremist
Leader’s processControl by detail & oppressionControl by resignationControl by manipulationControl by proselytizing

Adapted from Bolman and Deal (2013)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Transnationalism: A view of the world that sees certain interests as going beyond the borders of individual nation-states. Whereas internationalism emphasizes the relationship among nation-states, transnationalism takes a global perspective (Collins, 2009).

Behavior Learning Theory: Basis of authority and charisma style (1939-1948).

Personality Era: Two main periods, known as the Great Man period and the Trait period (1531-1840).

Intersectionality: Analysis claiming that systems of race, social class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, nation, and age form mutually constructing features of social organization, which shape Black women’s experiences and, in turn, are shaped by Black women (Collins, 2009).

Effective Leader: Is someone who manages to get people to do what they want. It could be defined as one who exerts influence to get others to achieve the leader's objectives regardless of the quality of the outcome. It will be effective if people allow themselves to be influenced. The outcomes can be good or bad (Henry, 2010).

Ineffective Leaders: Lack the courage to tackle difficult problems, often shifting blame to others. Knowing what traits characterize ineffective leaders is useful because it can offer a reference point for what not to do as a leader (Mack, 2017).

Leadership Domains: For the purpose of this book and the study of overcoming barriers to Hispanic women/Latinas in higher education, the leadership domain is going to be used to describe the analysis followed by a comparative approach influenced by the grounded and standpoint theory to illuminate the stories of the participants (Barrón, 2016).

Contemporary Leadership Theory: Also called inter-personal leadership (1990-2004).

Epistemology: The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion (Oxford, 2020).

Open Systems Leadership Theories: Open system leadership focuses on event management, situations, role making, and culture (1977-1985).

Macro-Sociological Level or Macro-Level Sociology: Looks at large-scale social processes, such as social stability and change. Micro-level sociology looks at small-scale interactions between individuals, such as conversation or group dynamics (Lumen, 2020).

Contingency and Situational Theories: Contingency and situations effective contextual behavior occurs where leaders and subordinates can influence each other in a multi-lateral manner (1967-1976).

Oppression: An unjust situation where, systematically and over a long period of time, one group denies another group access to the resources of society. Race, gender, class, sexuality, nation, age, and ethnicity constitute major forms of oppression (Collins, 2009).

Chicana Leadership Theory: The oppression of the Chicana is intricate and arises from a multitude of domineering means. She is an ethnic minority, she is woman who is universally oppressed by men, and her Chicano heritage exaggerates this male domination over women (Chicana Feminism, 2020).

Essentialism: Belief that individuals or groups have inherent, unchanging characteristics rooted in biology or a self-contained culture that explain their status. When linked to oppression of race, gender, and sexuality, binary thinking constructs “essential” group differences.

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