Model Based on Ontological Engineering as Support for Stakeholder Management

Model Based on Ontological Engineering as Support for Stakeholder Management

Beitmantt Geovanni Cárdenas Quintero (Universidad Francisco José de Caldas, Colombia), Flor Nancy Díaz-Piraquive (Universidad Catolica de Colombia, Colombia) and Hilma Ximena Fonseca Ruiz (Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Colombia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1934-9.ch013

Abstract

The objective of this article is a way of working that is used as an instrument for managing the parts with semantic and conceptual elements, such as mastery of management projects, and the effects of ontological engineering techniques, which solves frequently asked questions with respect to information related to this resource. This is done in an agile, precise, and effective way, facilitating its management in the phases that make up the life cycle of the project. The research will contribute to the integration of ontological engineering and project management, enabling the construction of a stakeholder information structure with semantic components that enable it to be the input of a more complex knowledge management model.
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Introduction

Project management is defined as the discipline to organize and manage resources, the form of a given project that has been fully completed within the scope, time and cost constraints. In a more formal way, project management is the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute projects efficiently and effectively. It is a strategic competition for organizations, which allows them to see the results of projects to business goals and thus compete better in their market of action (Project Management Institute PMI, 2014). It is the sense of the recommendations issued for the project management of PMI, Prince 2 and IPMA (IPMA, 2015), as well as the report of management methods increasingly like Gantt chart, Pert chart, critical chain, value technique Cattle and Scrum among others, the principles of action to optimize the results of the project through constant improvements, the use of analysis tools, the estimation and measurement of variables.

The theory of these proposals include the management of the factors and variables that can be presented in the life cycle of a project; However, to achieve the total success of the project management is something that is very difficult, due to its nature, complexity, resources and environment, but above all for the actors that are part of it directly or indirectly. The identification, documentation and management of the people or groups and entities that participate in some way and at some point of the project, has become a high priority factor for managers, because of the experience and experience in executing projects, it is possible to conclude that this is one of the components of greater incidence in the success or failure of the same. The implementation of project management technologies in business is promoting a cultural change, because the information is shared among all employees and ownership around it generates new knowledge. This, in turn, is reflected on best practices and the development, implementation and collaboration on future activities and processes. The collaborative management technologies have been introduced in companies not only as a tool to solve problems with employees, suppliers or customers, but have fostered an environment of collaboration between all stakeholders, to share solutions, continuous improvement in time real and more and better attention to both internal and external customers (Díaz-Piraquive, Medina-García, & Joyanes-Aguilar, 2013).

The present paper exposes a supported proposal in the ontological engineering, whose objective is to propose an ontology model that serves as support to the management of the interested parties of a project, since this engineering defines the ontology as a structure and contents of form explicit, where implicit rules drawn from reality are determined, determining a formal and explicit specification of a shared conceptualization (Gruber, 2007). -Other definition is what is provided by Gruber, very relevant in this context where he says that an ontology is a set of terms of knowledge, which includes a vocabulary, relationships and a set of logical rules and inferences about a domain in particular ” (Hendler, 2001).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Risk: It is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one of the project's objectives. Objectives may include scope, timing, cost and quality.

Role: Role or function of the Stakeholder in the project.

Event: Situation, circumstance or reason that makes difficult, impossible or facilitates the development of an activity during the life cycle project.

Requirement: These are the organization's needs and wishes in relation to achieving the project, or the solutions that will make it possible to achieve these goals.

Impact: An affectation level that can generate a Stakeholder to make changes to the planning or execution of the project.

Cost Unit: It is the amount of money that the project costs the stakeholder's participation in the life cycle project.

Stakeholder: Person or group of people or entity that can affect or be affect by a decision, activity or exit from the project.

Ontological Engineering: Engineering dedicated to the set of activitiesconcerning the development process of ontologies, their life cycle, the methods and methodologies to build them and the tools and languages that bear.

Power: Authority level of a Stakeholder during the life cycle project.

Concern: Value or utility that the Stakeholder has on the project.

Ontology: Set of terms of knowledge, which includes vocabulary, relationships and a set of logical rules and inference about a particular domain.

Working Package: A working package is a quantitative and qualitative description of an operation to be carried out in the project, known as the lowest level of EDT decomposition.

Change: It refers to the adjustments requested by the Stakeholder to any aspect of the project at the management level or its objectives.

Project Management: Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

Strategy: Set of actions aimed at well-being and good organizational environment, during the life cycle project

Influence: The quality that grants the ability to exercise control over power by a Stakeholder in the life cycle project.

Performance: It is the result of the efficiency and effectiveness analysis that a stakeholder had of the activities to which the stakeholder was assigned or participated in some way during the life cycle project.

Time Unit: This is the amount of time that the stakeholder participates during the life cycle project.

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