Recent Trends in Parallel Computing

Recent Trends in Parallel Computing

Lokendra Singh Umrao (Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, India), Dharmendra Prasad Mahato (Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, India) and Ravi Shankar Singh (Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, India)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 10
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch350
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Introduction Of Parallel Computing

Basic Concepts in Parallel Computing

Parallel computing is an important research area with a long development history in computer science. A parallel computer is a collection of processing elements that cooperate and communicate to solve large problems rapidly. In parallel computing, a problem decomposed in multiple parts can be solved concurrently by using multiple compute resources which run on multiple processors; an overall control/coordination mechanism is applied. The multiple instructions of decomposed computational problem parts should be executed in less response time at any moment of time. The computer resources might be a single computer with many processors, or many computers connected by a network, or a combination of both, whereas in serial computing a program run on a single computer with a single Central Processing Unit (CPU) and instructions are executed one by one; at any moment of time only one instruction executes (Wilkinson & Allen, 2009). Parallel computing is parallel with respect to time and space.

Figure 1 depicts the general process of solving a problem using parallel computing. Therefore, we can observe that parallel computing consists the following phases: parallel computers (hardware platforms), parallel algorithm (theoretical basis), parallel programming (software supports), and parallel applications (large problems).

Figure 1.

Steps of solving a problem using parallel computing

Now “Theoretical Science,” “Experimental Science” and “Computational Science” has become the three major types of science to accelerate technological development and social progression (Quinn, 2002).

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Background

1936 was a key year for computer science and the development of modern computer began and was divided into two different parts: serial computing and parallel computing. Both of them were started with the development of architecture, system software, application software, and finally they reached to the problem solving environment.

To overcome performance bottlenecks in serial computation is the main reason in the development of parallel computing. Parallelism has been applied for many years, mainly in high performance computing. As power consumption by computers has become a current issue in recent years, parallel computing has become the prevalent prototype in computer architecture in the form of multi-core processors. For the specific task, specialized parallel computers are sometime used (Chakravarty, Leshchinskiy, Jones, & Keller, 2008).

Parallel computer programs are more difficult to write than sequential one because concurrency introduces many new software bugs and race condition. Communication and synchronization between the different tasks are typically some of the greatest obstacles to getting good parallel program performance.

The well-known Amdahl's law provides the maximum possible speed-up of a program as a result of parallelization. The speed-up of a program from parallelization is limited by how much of the program can be parallelized. For example, if 70% of the program can be parallelized, then the theoretical maximum speed-up using parallel computing would be 30x, no matter how many processors are used.

Amdahl's developed the first speedup model using fixed workload and Gustafson's proposed the scaled speedup model after reevaluating Amdahl's law. Gustafson's law is closely related to Amdahl's law. Gustafson's law is for scaled problems, where the problem size increases with the increases in machine size (i.e., number of processors). Both Amdahl's law and Gustafson's law assume that the running time of the sequential portion of the program is independent of the number of processors.

In 1993, Sun and Ni developed a memory-bounded speedup model which generalizes both Amdahl's law and Gustafson's law to maximize the use of both processor and memory capacities. The idea is to solve the maximum possible size of the problem, limited by the memory capacity. In fact, many large-scale scientific and engineering applications of parallel computers are memory-bound rather than CPU-bound and I/O bound (Hwang, 2005).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Parallel Computing: The use of multiple computers (processors, cores) working together to solve a common problem.

Multi-Core Computing: A computing system composed of multiple independent cores (or CPUs) which are integrated onto a single integrated circuit die, or may be integrated onto multiple dies in a single chip package.

Cloud Computing: A technology which uses the Internet and remote servers to preserve data and applications. It allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation their personal data at any computer with Internet access. This technology allows more efficient computing by centralizing data storage, processing and bandwidth by using the concept of thin computing.

Multiprocessors: Contain multiple CPUs that are not on the same chip and are less complex than multi-core systems, because they are essential single chip CPUs connected together.

Massive Parallel Processing: A form of processing of the same program by multiple processors collaboratively where different threads of the program are handled by each processor, and each processor has its own operating system and memory.

Message Passing Interface: An international accepted standard for a message passing library used in C and Fortran programs and is available for most computer systems and operating systems.

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