Understanding Consumer Behavior Through Eye-Tracking

Understanding Consumer Behavior Through Eye-Tracking

H. Serhat Cerci (Selcuk University, Turkey) and A. Selcuk Koyluoglu (Selcuk University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3126-6.ch004
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The purpose of this chapter, which is designed to measure where and how the consumer focuses in an advertising brochure, which visual is more striking, and how much eye strain (twitch) it takes, is to measure the density and visual attention of the eyes through the eye-tracking device during the individual examination. For this study, an experimental laboratory for neuromarketing research was used. After watching the videos and images of the participants in the eye-tracking module, the general evaluations were taken to determine what they remembered, and a comparison opportunity was born. According to the findings, logos, and photographs are more effective than texts. Viewers read large text and skip small text. Suggestions for future research are presented in the chapter.
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Today's marketing mentality, which focuses on and aims customer satisfaction and consumer wishes, has experienced gradual and radical changes in the process, both in terms of the function of marketing and from the point of view of business and marketers until it reaches this point. Undoubtedly, the three leading actors of marketing, producers/sellers, consumers/buyers, and advertisers have learned lessons from this change. In mentioned period, successful master of persuasion must move ahead of the product range and have a specific action plan that will go beyond changes that vary depending on the situation. Marketers should adopt strategies and policies to increase sales with new methods and techniques. Otherwise, this cumulative effect on the consumer by traditional methods may result in disappointment as a result of excessive market overload. Advertisers, the last important stakeholder, should be able to analyze the society correctly, foresee market requirements, attract customer demands and needs, and be able to produce results by examining company-related research in the right way.

The most appropriate keyword to use for this explanation is community engineering. It means establishing different structures within the scope of some projects on social life. Today, globalization is emerging as an appearance of social engineering. An example is that television programs target the moral structure of society by affecting the masses (Wikipedia, 02.04.2020). Because a rational and a pragmatist community engineer knows how to turn insecurity into trust, and like a chess player, he can project which moves the other side will make. In this life-and-death battle, only those parties that operate as described will survive, and for those who act otherwise, the result is and will continue to be frustrating. An anecdote of AdAge (Lorna, 2014), shows the situation with all its nakedness. According to the survey, global advertising spending reached the highest limit in history with $ 500 billion in 2013, but half of this money has gone to waste, and it is not known which half has been wasted even though huge budgets are allocated for market research. In order to eliminate these negativities, marketing has put back the unacceptable beliefs in the form of individuals acting completely rationally in order to make more accurate analyzes and determinations and to produce healthy solutions.

Although some authors argue that there are elements such as desire and belief in the concept of rationality, this understanding could not go beyond a commodifying technological approach for humanbeings. This is because the core of this understanding is based on a single plane and it is unable to respond to the complexity created by algorithm between the individual characteristics and behavior (Hazeldine, 2013; Plessis, 2008). In light of these developments, knowing why, how and when people buy this kind of up-to-date and competitive information and considering their behavioral dynamics will undoubtedly have a positive impact on the life expectancy of organizations (Mukherji & Mukherji, 1998). In this new formation, which includes many intersections, the role played by the consumer is clearly felt. This is because the passive consumer who is satisfied with the existing and accepted quickly has been replaced by a well-equipped, active consumer profile capable of dominating the market. As will be discussed in detail in the neuromarketing section, the new consumer profile for which this postmodern consumer term would be a suitable discourse differs more than traditional from multiple predictable variables such as social strata, behavior and demographic characteristics, far from modern consumer characteristics.

The main reason underlying this difference is undoubtedly the role played by consumption. Because production is at the forefront in modern economics, understanding even up to the modern economy, consumption is dominant in today's postmodern economy. With these indisputable changes, the production and consumption become more flexible, and the production of information economies and commodity economies are adapted to this new trend as well as the production of information in accordance with the expectations and needs of the consumer. The new consumer tendency that cares more about its image than the physical and functional characteristics of the product is, of course, an important element of this new economy and socio-culture. What is important in this culture is not to prefer one of the products or services by minimizing the opportunity costs, but to bring more value together by bringing the two together (Burton, 2002).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Facial Coding: This system, which is used especially in detecting the emotional reactions to advertisements, is used in many aspects such as a company's shelf layout, website and product package. The momentarily emerging emotional reactions of individuals with the ability to perceive in the first 40 milliseconds become meaningful when they are combined with perception-mimic and basic facial muscles. The value, arousal and dominance dimensions of sensations can be evaluated depending on the expressions forming on the face as a result of perceptions.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR): In particular, the change of electrical resistances of regions without hair on the body due to any stimuli can occur because of the activity of sweat glands. This technique is used in marketing to measure responses to technical websites and advertisements.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): FMRI is one of the special tools of neuromarketing. Thanks to this technique, an increase in blood flow level can be measured. As part of an experiment, the subject is scanned while lying on the back in a long, narrow tube. The tube is surrounded by magnets, and once the magnets are activated, they form electric fields. In addition, this device has the ability to accurately determine an increase in activity in a particular area of the brain when a stimulus / stimulant condition is exhibited.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG): MEG is sensitive to changes in magnetic fields induced by electrical brain activity. MEG resembles fMRI in format and shows stimulated areas in the brain. Like in fMRI, MEG takes snapshot, but MEG is faster.

Measurement of Physiological Responses: The researchers can also reveal the immediate emotional state of the subjects through the measurement of physiological responses such as heart rate, blood pressure, saliva, and stress hormone.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET): PET allows quantitative imaging of relatively low targets besides the introduction of mass effects with extremely high sensitivity.

Electroencephalography (EEG): EEG is a method of printing electrical potential variations that are slightly different from each other, while being evoked by typical electrical potentials as well as by receptor activity.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): TMS consists of modulating cortical activity with electromagnetic induction. In transcranial magnetic stimulation, two types of electrical stimuli are used: Low and high frequency stimuli. The effect is converted into neural activation and the subject is immobilized.

Fixed-State Typography (FST): This technique measures the steady-state visual stimulus potentials and records the signals from 64 electrodes in a light header at a rate of 13 times per second.

Implicit Association Test: According to this test, the concepts that have the same segmentation in the human mind automatically recall each other. This technique, which is used to measure the implicit attitudes of individuals, enables the identification of hierarchies by comparing the products. With this technique, reaction times, basic attitudes and evaluations are measured. Brand positioning, categorized segmentation, open packaging features and measurement of using celebrities in ads are within the scope of use.

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