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What is Battery

Handbook of Research on Advances and Applications in Refrigeration Systems and Technologies
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Primary (single-use or “disposable”) batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including lead–acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer). Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network.
Published in Chapter:
Use of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for Refrigerated Transport
Raquel Garde (National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Spain), Sindia Casado (National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Spain), Fernando Jimenez (National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Spain), Gabriel Garcia-Naveda (National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Spain), and Monica Aguado (National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8398-3.ch024
Benchmark refrigeration systems in the road transportation sector are powered by diesel, having operation costs of up to 6,000 €/y with the consequent increase of the goods cost. This chapter presents an alternative refrigeration system based on fuel cells (FC) and hydrogen as fuel, with higher efficiency, reduced costs and independent of diesel price fluctuations. Examples of the energy load profiles impact on the FC sizing, H2 consumption and system autonomy are presented as well as a description of the FC model and performance simulation results. The economical feasibility of this new refrigeration system linked to renewable energies is also analyzed and an economical assessment for different scenarios is presented.
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