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What is Structural Equivalence

Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking, Second Edition
The extent to which nodes have a common set of linkages to other nodes in the system. The nodes do not need to have any linkages with each other to be structurally equivalent.
Published in Chapter:
A Second Look at Improving Student Interaction with Internet and Peer Review
Dilvan de Abreu Moreira (Stanford University, USA) and Elaine Quintino da Silva (University of São Paulo, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch171
In the last few years, education has been going through an important change: the introduction of information technology in the educational process. Many efforts have been conducted to realize the benefits of such technologies, such as the MIT-Media Lab One Laptop per Child initiative (MIT, 2007) in education. As a result of these efforts, there are many tools available today to produce multimedia educational material for the Web such as WebCT (WebCT, 2004). However, teachers are not sure how to use these tools to create effective models for teaching over the Internet. After a teacher puts classroom slides, schedules, and other static information on Web pages, what more can this technology offer? A possible response to this question is to use Internet technologies to promote collaborative learning. Collaborative learning (CL) is an educational strategy based on social theories in which students, joined in small groups, are responsible for the learning experience of each other (Gokhale, 1995; Panitz, 2002). In CL, the main goal of the teacher is to organize collective activities that can stimulate the development of skills such as creativity, oral expression, and critical thinking, among others. When supported by computers and Internet technologies, collaborative learning is referenced as computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL). The main goal of CSCL is to use software and hardware to support and increase group work and learning. The peer review method, known by almost everyone in the academic world, when applied as an educational tool, can be considered a kind of collaborative learning activity. This article describes an educational method that uses peer review and the Internet to promote interaction among students. This method, which has been used and refined since 1997 (by the first author), has been used in different computer science courses at the ICMC-USP. Software tools, such as the WebCoM—Web Course Manager tool (Silva & Moreira, 2003)—are used to support the peer review method and to improve interaction among students. The main advantages of the peer review method and the WebCoM tool over other works in this context are that they: • Allow debate between groups (workers and reviewers) to improve interaction and social abilities among students; • Focus on the interaction among students and their social skills; • Also offer support for group activities (such as reports and assignments) without peer review. Results generated by the experience of managing classes with the WebCoM tool are also presented.
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Shaping and Re-Shaping Tourism Areas: A Network Approach
Mathematical property of two nodes having the same ties with themselves, each other, and to and from all other nodes in the network.
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Using Network Analysis for Understanding How Decisions are Made
Characteristic of nodes that occupy similar positions and roles in a network. A consequence of structural equivalence is that equivalent nodes often share the same set of relationship and pursue the same objectives.
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