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What is Surface Water

Membrane Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment in Rural Regions
Freshwater that is found on the earth's surface such as rivers, ponds, and lakes.
Published in Chapter:
Clean Water Production for Isolated Areas
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2645-3.ch007
The provision of clean water is a global concern that must be critically addressed by all government bodies. However, lack of attention to this matter presents difficulties to many rural regions, especially in the developing countries. Most rural regions around the world experience lack of clean water due to various factors such as shortage of water resources and lack of water treatment facilities due to geographical constraint and scatter of population. Thus, small-scale water treatment system is an attractive technology for clean water production in isolated areas as it only requires a small footprint and it is more cost-effective than conventional water treatment plants. This chapter focuses on the small-scale water treatment systems for each of surface water, groundwater, rainwater, and brackish water resources. Considerations are taken based on the type of water resources and geographical conditions of the rural areas which include flat grounds, hills, and island areas. Besides, rainwater harvesting and treatment is reviewed for individual house application.
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Water Right Law
Water that collects on the surface of the ground in a stream, river, lake or wetland.
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A Review of Microplastic Pollution Characteristics in Global Urban Freshwater Catchments
Usually refers to the water layer 0 – 25 cm deep in a waterbody. The exact depth range is defined differently in publications.
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