Determining the Motives and Behaviors of Brand Hate

Determining the Motives and Behaviors of Brand Hate

Reyhan Günaydin (Gumushane University, Turkey) and Emel Yıldız (Gumushane University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5077-9.ch023
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The aim of this study is to determine the effects of experiential avoidance, moral avoidance, and identity avoidance on brand hate. In addition, this study of brand hate, brand revenge, brand switching intention, electronic negative word of mouth marketing and its effects on brand equity have been tested. The data in this study were obtained from a face-to-face survey with 394 consumers. Cronbach alpha coefficient analysis was used for the reliability of the scales. Factor analysis was used for the validity of the scales. The hypotheses in the study were tested by structural equation analysis. According to the results of the study; ıt was concluded that there is a positive effect of experiential avoidance, identity avoidance, and moral avoidance on brand hate. Also, brand hate has a positive effect on revenge, electronic negative word of mouth marketing, brand switching intention. In addition, brand hate has been found to have a negative impact on the overall brand equity.
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Brand Hate

The concept of hate is derived from the Arabic word ‘nafra’ (, 2019). It is mentioned as a feeling towards wanting one's evil and unhappiness (, 2019). Hate is a concept that is thought to be the opposite of like and love (Shand, 1920). The concept of brand hate is adapted from Sternberg's theory of interpersonal hate (Kucuk, 2019). Sternberg's triangle of hate theory is shown as follows (Sternberg, 2003).

Figure 1.

The Triangle of Hate

Source: Sternberg, 2003: 307
  • Negation of Intimacy: It is explained as the emotional distance from the person to the person.

  • Passion: The hatred of the person causes anger and fear causes avoidance.

  • Commitment: It is defined as the deploration and disdain of the hated person.

Brand hate, which is a subtype of consumer dissatisfaction (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006), can be expressed as intense negative reaction developed against the brand (Bryson, Atwal & Hulten, 2013). In addition to this definition, it defines permanent intense negative emotion developed against a brand (Delzen, 2014).

Brand hate is divided into two dimensions as ‘active brand hate and passive brand hate’. While active brand hate includes feelings of disgust, anger or disgust pasif, passive brand hate includes feelings of ‘shame, disillusionment, frustration (Zarantonello, Romani, Grappı & Bagozzı, 2016). Brand hate is examined under three headings as ‘hot, cool and cold brand hate’. Cold brand hate is expressed as seeing the brand worthless. Cool brand hate is expressed as negative feelings towards the brand. Hot brand hate includes feelings such as anger developed against the brand and these structures can be considered under two headings as ‘attitudinal and behavioral (Kucuk, 2019):

  • 1.

    Attitudinal Brand Hate (a combination of cold and cool brand hate): After sharing the negative emotions of the consumer with his / her close environment, he / she takes away from the brand.

  • 2.

    Behavioral Brand Hate (hot brand hate): It is realized by the consumer expressing his / her negative emotions publicly.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Brand Equity: It is the set of values that the business name/symbol has added to the product/service.

Moral Avoidance: It stems from the ideological mismatch that consumers experience against brands.

Structural Equation Analysis: It is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions.

Brand Hate: It consists of negative feelings against a brand.

Identity Avoidance: It occurs as a result of the mismatch between the image of the brand and the identity of the consumer.

Survey: It is defined as a research method used for collecting data from a pre-defined group of respondents to gain information and insights on various topics of interest.

Experiential Avoidance: It is related to the consumer's perceptions about the use of a product, service and brand.

BRAND: It is a name, trademark, or other symbol which distinguishes a product or manufacturer from others in the market

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