Principles of Learning in the Technology-Enhanced Classroom

Principles of Learning in the Technology-Enhanced Classroom

Kevin S. Krahenbuhl (Middle Tennessee State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2706-0.ch006
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Abstract

This chapter presents a contextual overview of common misconceptions, challenges, and conceptual frames of importance with respect to learning with technology. Having explored these foundational elements, it adapts principles of learning and multimedia informed by empirical research in cognitive science for the technology-enhanced classroom. The chapter concludes with areas for future research expanding on this synthesis of research and a discussion of its implications and applications for educators in these technologically rich learning environments.
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Technology And Learning

The classroom has often been characterized as slow to change and out of date. While many of these charges are appropriate and worthy of consideration, others are not warranted. Technology has the real potential to make positive impacts on learning – especially with regards to utilizing it for formative assessments – but it is not a solution to learning in of itself. Before diving into an exploration of key principles of cognition and multimedia learning let us place some context into the landscape of learning with technology. First, we will explore some common misconceptions regarding learning with technology and then we will explore the conceptual framework of technological pedagogical and content knowledge. Having those foundations laid we will be ready to move into a discussion of these crucial principles for learning.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Digital Natives: A term applied to younger generations who have grown up exposed to digital technology and ostensibly proficient at, and perhaps requiring, use of technology for learning (is erroneous and not supported by research).

Contiguity Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should keep any text close to its corresponding graphic(s).

TPACK: (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) – the unique capacity of the professional teacher to leverage technology effectively for learning.

Multimedia Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should build mental connections between the written words and graphic representations within any presentation.

Coherence Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should not include any type of information that is not related to content and context of a presentation.

Butterfly Effect: The tendency of learners to move from hyperlink to hyperlink in their search for information in a haphazard manner not conducive to learning.

Deliberate Practice: The intentional application of a skill someone is already proficient at with guidance and feedback from a more knowledgeable person to guide growth.

Cognitive Load Theory: A theory of learning that explains that the best conditions for learning are those in which the learner’s working memory (site of awareness) is focused on relevant aspects for the learning objective to foster schema formation in long-term memory.

Personalization Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should utilize a conversational style over formal style when possible.

Formative Assessment: A measure of student learning during a learning sequence that is leveraged so that it informs both the learner (progress and where to go next) and the instructor (in where to go from here).

Modality Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should use audio rather than text when possible and should keep any narration concise.

Redundancy Principle: A principle of best practice in creation of multimedia presentations in which creators should eliminate redundant information.

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