Promoting Awareness of Human Trafficking Through Innovative Educational Technology Using the Holocaust as Historical Reference

Promoting Awareness of Human Trafficking Through Innovative Educational Technology Using the Holocaust as Historical Reference

Virginia Dickenson
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-3926-5.ch016
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In the face of increasing globalization, there is the growth of complex worldwide socio-economic, cultural, and political issues impacting the health of vulnerable groups. Efforts in strategic global destabilization and increases of genocidal efforts are argued to have contributed and continue to contribute to increases in human trafficking of both children and adults including organ trafficking. Common victims of trafficking are populations deemed undesirable or unworthy at large, often defined by physical or mental conditions, race and ethnicity, and gender. Trafficking of women and children is a common outcome of any genocidal effort. Within this chapter, the Holocaust, the most glaring genocide event, provides a framework for exploring current situations of genocide, its correlation and effect on human trafficking, and the resulting impacts on modern healthcare providers and nurse educators and the need to continue to spotlight these issues.
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Human trafficking is not new and is certainly not exclusive to the U.S. For as long as man has been enslaving man, the profit from human capital has existed and thrived. The most common victims of trafficking are populations deemed undesirable or unworthy at large, often defined by physical or mental conditions, race and ethnicity, and including gender discrimination. Native children are often trafficked through adoption to colonists or their ancestors, demonstrating an insidious effort to eliminate the native culture and lineage. UNICEF estimates that:

According to the latest global estimates, over 150 million children are subjected to child labor with nearly half in hazardous forms of work. One in four victims of modern slavery are children and are mostly girls.

Whether it is the trafficking of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, the exploitation of Central American migrants bound for the United States, the sexual enslavement of women and girls in Europe, or the forced labor of sub-Saharan Africans or refugees from the Middle East, desperate families and individuals often feel they have little choice but to risk exploitation in an effort to survive. (UNICEF, 2022, para. 4-5)

The U.S. Department of State has determined that 109,216 were identified as trafficked in 2020 (U.S. Department of State, 2021a). According to the International Labour Board and Walk Free Foundation (Global Estimates of Modern Slavery, 2017), approximately 71% of 40 million modern slaves were women and children in 2016 (p. 5). Further, thousands of children are also trafficked for adoption by couples in North America and Europe (Budiman & Lopez, 2017; Jordan, 2016; Staat et al, 2020).

During the World War II Holocaust, Jews and Romanies were targeted for extermination. Jewish women and young girls were heavily trafficked (Chalmers, 2020; Ghert-Zand, 2015; Havryshko, 2020). This is a common outcome of a genocidal effort. As the Holocaust inspired the creation of the term “genocide” (Lemkin, 1944), it may be asserted that it continues to be a prominent example of, and blueprint, for systemic exploitation and extermination of targeted populations.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Levensunwertes Leben: “A life unworthy of life” was a designation by Nazis during World War II to designate segments of the population that the regime determined should be exterminated, typically justified by the perceived threat to or burden on society by the targeted group.

Machinima: Videos made in video games or virtual worlds.

Euthanasia: This term is derived from Greek, from a literal translation of “good death” or death without suffering. The term has evolved to mean “mercy killing.” It is the deliberate ending of someone’s life using the justification that they are suffering and may not be relieved of their suffering while living. The process may be voluntary or involuntary, as the term does not specify that condition.

Western Colonization: This describes the phenomenon and practice by various Western European nations and entities to explore, conquer, settle, and / or exploit other area of the globe. This definition includes the continuing cultural destruction of the native culture and the continued and pervasive systemic biases that are part of the current systems, cultures, and practices of the previously conquered nation.

Virtual World: Virtual world, or virtual space, is an immersive environment created as a computer simulation. These worlds may be populated by multiple users who create avatars, explore the world, participate in activities, and interact with others synchronously.

Realpolitik: This is a concept of pragmatic politics with disregard for ethics. As such, it refers to the concept of politically addressing conditions and things in terms of the reality of situations as opposed to any idealism.

Human Trafficking: This is the use of some form of involuntary coercion to force victims to perform acts that result in commercial transaction or profit for the perpetrator(s). The most common acts are labor or commercial sex acts, but may include organ trafficking as well.

Public Policy: This consists of regulations, actions, laws that are cultural, social, political, or economic in nature, typically created, funded, and enforced by a governmental body or agency.

Crime Against Humanity: This refers to an act or series of acts that causes mass human suffering or death as part of a strategic systematic campaign or effort.

Genocide: According to the United Nations, genocide is the intentional effort by an organized perpetrator to physically target, murder, and / or destroy a group of people based on nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion. This does not include cultural destruction or the intentional but simplistic dispersion of a group.

Holocaust Denial: This refers to the belief, often extreme, that the Holocaust never happened, was staged, exaggerated. The term Holocaust distortion may also be used in certain cases.

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