Technologies for Connected Government Implementation: Success Factors and Best Practices

Technologies for Connected Government Implementation: Success Factors and Best Practices

Atakan Gerger (Ege University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4570-6.ch003

Abstract

This chapter aims to identify critical success factors and examines the best use of Web 2.0 technologies to improve the effectiveness and transparency of electronic government (e-government) provision. To this end, the chapter presents the use of e-Portals for connected government (c-government), e-government, and mobile government. Since the connected government practices rely not only on the technologies used but also on the culture, regime, and structure of the population, a number of other relevant factors are also discussed to further determine the impact of latest technologies on c-government practices. This study has resulted in the identification of six basic critical success factors affecting the success of c-government. At the same time, it is suggested that Web 2.0 technologies may be used to make e-government applications more human-centred, transparent, social, dynamic, and applicable. New concepts such as Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 are also examined.
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Introduction

Humankind has always been in search of a change and its quest has helped it reach at the today’s super-smart society. The Ionian philosopher Heraclitus, who lived in Ephesus from 540 to 480 BC, summed up this need of change of humankind by suggesting that “change is the only constant in life “, and asserting that “change is at the centre of the universe” (Reardon, 2017). Heraclitus, considered as the founding father of the idea of the process, highlighted the importance of the process of change and transformation with the words “everything flows, nothing remains“ (Nayak, 2014). In the modern world, however, change is associated with the diversity of scientific knowledge and the resulting increase in specialization (Gjertsen, 1989) and “the desire for change increases as the level of knowledge of humanity increases”. It is generally accepted that our social needs have changed and are continuously changing to this day, but this has occurred over time in five stages. The Japanese Economic Organization (Keidanren) categorized these stages as shown in Figure 1 (Keidanren, 2018; Gerger, 2019b).

Figure 1.

Process of transforming from the agrarian society to the super-smart society of today

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The evolvement of each new stage occurred in a shorter time fame than its predecessor. The reasons for this include the accumulation of knowledge of humanity and the level of civilization that it has reached. Today, the progress achieved especially in the areas of artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, deep learning, cloud computing, machine learning (ML) and so forth, has facilitated the dissemination of information and economic development, accelerating this process even further. As a consequence, change has profoundly affected not only people, but also all our cities, our social values, and our ways of living and working (Gerger, 2019b; Lin, Shyu, & Ding, 2017).

Advances in science and technology have led to the rapid proliferation and dissemination of knowledge, causing serious changes in society and industry. This digital transformation has been establishing the basis for a new industrial and service policy in several countries by creating new values in society, industry, and government functioning. As a consequence of such global tendencies, the concept of “Society 5.0” was suggested and later recognised by the Japan Council of Ministers on January 5, 2016 via the “5th Science and Technology Basic Plan” (Fukuyama, 2018). Informing the general public about the need for change and ensuring that society adapts to newer technologies are important goals for Society 5.0 (Gerger & Firuzan, 2010). In fact, the concept of Society 5.0 has emerged in response to human needs and as consequence of evolving technological space. The aim is to ensure that society perceives technology as an enabler to making life easier rather than see technology as threat to the way people operate (Gökten, 2018). Society 5.0 is based on Industry 4.0 (Harayama, 2017), which emerged in Germany in 2011 when digital technologies became to be used into production and manufacturing processes.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Information and Communication Technology (ICT): It refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications and focuses on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, mobile phones and other means of communication.

Statistics: Statistics is the science involved in the study of the development of methods for collecting, analysing, interpreting and presenting data. Statistics is an interdisciplinary field. Statistics are used in almost all scientific fields. Research questions in various scientific fields contribute to the development of new statistical methods and theories.

Web 2.0: In the era of Web 2.0, users have been given the opportunity to use the Internet more efficiently with the emphasis on social interaction and common intelligence in a more interactive and collaborative and collective way.

M-Government: M-government refers to the use of mobile devices to provide services to businesses and citizens. The m-government portal is used to increase the speed and efficiency of service delivery by making public services more accessible to citizens.

Deep Learning: Deep learning refers to artificial neural networks that mimic the workings of the human brain in the formation of patterns used in data processing and decision-making. Deep learning is a subset of machine learning. They are artificial intelligence networks capable of learning from unstructured or unlabeled data.

Lean Management: Lean management refers to the control of resources according to customer/citizen needs by reducing any waste. It aims to identify and eliminate waste in the process by providing a systematic approach. It provides the flow of the perfect product and transparency to the customer/citizen. Lean management focuses on improving cost and time to optimize the e-Government service process.

C-Government (Connected Government): The focus of second-generation e-Government initiatives (c-Government) is to employ ICTs to enhance the value during the delivery stage of the services. The service delivery approach of governments has turned from the traditional service delivery approach to an approach where the emphasis is on e-Government and e-Services to enhance the value offered to citizens within an integrated infrastructure.

E-Government (or Government 1.0): This refers to the provisioning of a government’s functionality and its services using the web and communications technologies including the latest software development and deployment paradigms.

Industry 4.0: Industry 4.0 emerged in Germany in 2011 to adopt digital technologies into production. Technology between the real and virtual worlds focuses on technological and economic dimensions by creating a collaborative network to establish an integration between the virtual space and human beings.

Big Data: Big data is a new concept that identifies large amounts of heterogeneous data that cannot be processed using conventional database techniques. Big data characteristics include volume, variety, and velocity of data. Big data is generated by many sources. Some of the most known are smart sensors, smartwatches, wristbands, medical equipment/devices, tablets, phones, web usage records, social media, and simulation.

Society 5.0: Society 5.0 has emerged with the expansion of the vision of Industry 4.0 from the optimization of production processes to solving social problems in order to establish a thorough collaboration among technology, artificial intelligence and human beings.

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