Telesimulation: Remote Learning, Facilitation, and Debriefing

Telesimulation: Remote Learning, Facilitation, and Debriefing

Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4378-8.ch007
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Telesimulation involves conducting simulation-based education remotely using generic or specially developed video platforms. The learners and the facilitator or debriefer are in geographically separated locations. The content of telesimulation training varies from clinical scenarios to technical training on how to use telemedicine platforms and best practices of telemedicine. This chapter provides an overview of the key elements and types of video conferencing platforms and their use for telesimulation facilitation and debriefing, assessment of remote learners, and telementoring. Technical considerations are reviewed regarding devices, software, internet access, and technical support.
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Telesimulation is a process by which telecommunication and simulation resources are utilized to provide education, training and/or assessment to learners at an off-site location (Christopher Eric McCoy et al., 2017). Telemedicine using video enabled conferencing systems is an increasingly important tool for healthcare delivery (Fang et al., 2016; Gross et al., 2020; Umoren et al., 2018). The rise of telemedicine as an option for inpatient and outpatient care has been fueled by global events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This has enabled patients to receive care while socially distancing themselves and conserving personal protective equipment (Keilman et al., 2020; Shur et al., 2021). By the year 2020, it is anticipated that 76% of hospitals in the United States will have implemented telemedicine programs in order to connect with patients remotely through the use of video, audio, chat, email, and other technologies (Intelligence, 2020). Telesimulation, which refers to the process of performing simulation through the use of telecommunication, has also become more common in the training and education of healthcare teams in a variety of fields, including surgery, anesthesia, nursing, emergency medicine, and pediatrics, to name a few. (Rami A. Ahmed et al., 2016; Fang et al., 2014; Christopher Eric McCoy et al., 2017; Umoren et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2017).

The ability to train learners at a remote location is one of the many advantages offered by telesimulation. Other advantages include the reduction of geographical and temporal barriers to the delivery of content, the facilitation of institutional partnerships and collaboration, and cost reduction. Telesimulation research has been used to demonstrate that the use of video telemedicine in clinical assessments and resuscitation support that were previously conducted by phone call can decrease the amount of time required to appropriately stabilize and support decision-making during the triage and care of pediatric patients while they are being transported (Fang et al., 2014; Umoren et al., 2018). There is a trend toward more conservative approaches in some situations, such as the use of non-invasive respiratory support rather than endotracheal intubation, with the addition of video to support the decision-making process in these cases (Umoren et al., 2018). This finding was supported by a clinical study on the use of telemedicine in transportation settings (Curfman et al., 2020).

However, the delivery of telesimulation training sessions can be technically challenging, and it is necessary to have knowledge of the video platform as well as potential means to be able to deliver the experience and provide access to learners who may not already have this knowledge or access to the platform. This is because telesimulation training sessions are designed to replicate real-world conditions as closely as possible (Brei et al., 2020). There are two different kinds of platforms that can be used for telesimulation: ones that are designed for video conferencing that can be used for any purpose, and others that are designed for video-based use that can be used for telemedicine. The first part of this chapter provides an overview of the technological characteristics of platforms that are frequently used for video conferencing. The platforms are then investigated with regard to their potential educational applications, specifically teleeducation and telesimulation.

Key Terms in this Chapter

High-Fidelity Manikin: This term refers to a technology-enabled manikin with features such as mechanical respiration and heart rate.

Video-Assisted Debriefing: The practice of using video captured during simulation sessions for reflective discussions on learner and team performance.

Low-Fidelity Manikin: This is typically a low cost, low technology manikin with minimal features.

Telefacilitation: The conduct of a telesimulation by a remote facilitator.

Telesimulation: Telesimulation is a process by which telecommunication and simulation resources are utilized to provide education, training, and/or assessment to learners at an off-site location.

Simulation Technician/Specialist: An individual who supports the practice of simulation through setting up and managing simulation manikins and supplies.

Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): An approach to assessment that involves defined objectives and anticipated actions, often with an accompanying checklist for assessment.

Simulation Debriefer: A simulation instructor who leads the learners through a reflective analysis of simulation events.

Teledebriefing: Teledebriefing describes a process in which learners who are participating in a simulation scenario undergo debriefing with a facilitator located at an off-site location.

Virtual Environment: 3D computer generated objects that can be viewed on a screen or in a head-mounted display.

Virtual Reality: Computer generated 3D images viewed by a learner in a virtual environment using a low-cost or high-end head mounted display.

Simulation Facilitator: A simulation instructor who guides the learners through the scenario with the goal of meeting learning objectives.

Augmented Reality: Computer generated holographic images can be viewed by the learner in the physical environment using a mobile device or specially designed headset.

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