Importance of New Class Teaching Methods in Curricula Development in Developing Countries

Importance of New Class Teaching Methods in Curricula Development in Developing Countries

Igor Todorovic
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2708-5.ch018
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Developments in economy and labor market have always been much quicker than developments in high education and this gap has always played a big challenge to employers, as well as high education institutions. While some countries and high education institutions try to follow ever-changing market needs and use digital technologies to lower this gap and innovate on curricula development, others, like Bosnia and Herzegovina, haven't done much to lower this gap between market needs and high education curricula. This paper analyses importance of modern teaching methods in curricula development in high education institution in the BiH. New teaching methods were introduced to class for one semester, while in other class traditions teaching methods were used. It was found that students in this class have much higher skills and competences, and what is most important they needed less time to understand and gain knowledge about subject. Moreover, students in class where new teaching methods were used had higher grades than students were traditional methods were used.
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Introduction And Literature Review

Universities and higher education institutions provide and play important role in every society and economy by knowledge transfer, involvement into community and labor market as well as scientific research. However, main role of universities is teaching students and expending their knowledge, while preparing them for their carriers and continues learning and critical thinking. The role of universities is very important to all sectors in economy and whole society in social as well as legal and cultural point of view. Universities can be a support in providing the new knowledge, skills and competences needed to meet the economic, social and ecological challenges of one country or the whole world. They are regarded as key institutions in processes of social change and development, as well as developing new cultural values. However, the most important role of universities and higher education institution is the providing highly skilled graduates to labor market; research outputs that benefit economy, businesses and society; and new patterns and innovations.Figure 1. show importance that universities and higher education institutions play in worldasmajority of populationthat are between 25 and 34 years of age have attended higher education ortertiary-educated, therefore went through education and teaching system of universities.

Figure 1.

Educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds (2018)

Source: OECD (2019), Education at a Glance Database,
  • 1.

    Year of reference differs from 2018. Refer to Table A1.1 for more details.

  • 2.

    Data for upper secondary attainment include completion of a sufficient volume and standard of programmesthat would be classified individually as completion of intermediate upper secondary programmes (13% of adults aged 25-64 are in this group).

Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds.

Teaching has been changing under the influence of social changes which require the university education to answer the requirements of the dynamic and complex reality by organizing a learning process that will be able to train students to operate in professional practice (Apel, 2003). These influences are now more present then ever as new technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) are used in every industry and will continue to influence business, work place and economy in much higher degree. Therefore, competences and skills that a student needs to gain have been changing rapidly by the use of new technologies and AI in workplace. Skills that students needed to have decade ago in order to enter labor market are not same as what they need today. This rapid change that influenced economy, business, work place and society as a whole was not followed by universities that are in essence slow changing institutions. In majority of universities lecture has so far remained the dominant form of academic teaching in spite of continued attacks, critiques and intentions to suppress it and replace it with more effective methods and procedures. And even though students have changed from passive recipients of knowledge to active seekers for and users of knowledge, the traditional classroom lecture has been dominant teaching method in majority of universities today, which did not change much from the past (Alsop, 2006; Becker, 1997; Brown and Guilding 1993; Bonwell, 1997).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Project-Based Learning: Is a method that uses problems to teach students and places students in realistic problem-solving environments. Simply, its teaching method that organizes learning around projects. It involves initiative by the student or group of students, and necessitates a variety of educational activities.

Active Learning: Active learning engages students in the process of learning through activities and/or discussion in class, as opposed to passively listening to an expert. It emphasizes higher-order thinking and often involves group work. Active learning involves students and helps them to have an in-depth understanding of course through induction of practice; in other words, the inductive teaching has better results than productive teaching.

Examination: Examination is a formal test that student take in order to show their knowledge about the particular subject often done in written or oral form.

Discussion: Discussion is defined as an alternately serious and playful effort by a group of two or more to share views and engage in mutual and reciprocal critique.

Traditional Teaching: In traditional teaching teacher is being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they play the role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (in regard to curriculum content and specific outcomes). Traditional teaching methods focused on the teacher as the only source of information in the classroom. It embraces the idea of a teacher-centered method involving face-to-face interaction, mainly from the teacher to the student.

Modern Teaching: The modern teaching method is a learner-centred and activity-based teaching method which is used to get learners fully involved. This approach recognizes the learner as the primary reason for curriculum planning and teaching.

Case Study: The case study teaching method is a highly adaptable style of teaching that involves problem-based learning and promotes the development of analytical skills. Case study method is ideal for developing higher-order reasoning skills and that use of cases spice up the semester and show students how their esoteric learning impacts on the world.

Games: Games as a teaching method simply means including games into classes to introduce or explain content to students. Games encourage creative behavior and divergent thought and it can reduce gap between quicker and slower learners.

Critical Teaching: Critical teaching is teaching students how to think critically and not just take everything as it is said or written. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplines process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

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