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What is Informality

Handbook of Research on Global Networking Post COVID-19
Economic activities that are not regulated by a legal framework.
Published in Chapter:
Economic Crisis in Colombia Due to COVID-19: From Pandemic to Post-Pandemic Actions
Jahir Lombana-Coy (Universidad del Norte, Colombia), María Carolina Ovalle (Universidad del Norte, Colombia), and Alberto Elías Muñoz Santiago (Universidad del Norte, Colombia)
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8856-7.ch006
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a social, economic, and political impact, with companies particularly affected. Policymakers and managers had to make strategic decisions to continue operations. Therefore, this chapter focuses on evaluating the economic impact of the crisis in Colombia from the government, and companies' perspectives, and how they established some strategies to achieve economic sustainability. This analysis is composed of macroeconomic aspects, businesses´ role for economic reactivation, decisions to face the pandemic, and finally, actions that ensure their sustainability. There are issues on fiscal and monetary policies to ensure employment and keep inflation through direct support and rules to improve companies' conditions. Companies themselves should learn about risk management, digital transformation, and the relocation of providers and customers. There is no single recipe to guarantee success, but there is a need for an integrated plan that includes government, central bank, and companies to shorten the economic effects of this kind of crisis.
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ICTs and Participation in Developing Cities
Organization and administration mode that do not follow the administrative rules and the law, but that is generally recognized and tolerated.
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Female Entrepreneurship in Africa: An Inquiry Into the Influence of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations on Business Growth
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Informality and Informalization among Eritrean Refugees: Why Migration Does Not Provide a Lesson in Democracy
According to Keith Hart’s informal/formal dialectic, informality emerges in the encounter with formality. In unprivileged migration informal practices encompass bribe and corruption, false and forged documents, illegal immigration and the like. Besides these criminal offences less clear-cut practices, such as circumvention of formal rules, evasion, manipulation and mistrust, have become characteristic for the transnational migratory milieu of Eritreans. Informality and the process of informalization therefore also describe an ambivalent culture of migration.
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Re-Envisioning Formal and Informal Family Businesses in Nigeria: The Evolution, Opportunities, Succession Model, and Sustainability Challenges
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Human Capital in Tourism: A Practical Model of Endogenous and Exogenous Territorial Tourism Planning in Bahía Solano, Colombia
Refers to the lack of access to formal regulations for both businesses and labor force in the industry. Informality is the main characteristic in nature tourism in Colombian destinations. When it is observed in the labor force, it is related to the lack of social security (such as health services and pension), in the case of the businesses, it is related to the lack of registration in the National Tourism Registration, cash payments with no valid bills and no tax collection or payment to the state.
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