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What is Social Presence

Handbook of Research on ICTs for Human-Centered Healthcare and Social Care Services
The sensation of ‘being with’ and interacting with someone in another place.
Published in Chapter:
Augmented Reality Framework for the Socialization between Elderly People
Luis Almeida (Institute of Systems and Robotics, Portugal), Paulo Menezes (Institute of Systems and Robotics, Portugal), and Jorge Dias (Institute of Systems and Robotics, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3986-7.ch023
Abstract
The socialization between elderly people assumes a key role on their mind and body well-being while loneliness expects to be one of major problems of our increasing age society. This research aims to study and develop a framework to support elderly people socialization when they are confined to their homes for some reason. It can be also adequate for people following some neurological or physical rehabilitation treatment remotely or monitoring behaviors in order to prevent potential diseases. This work proposes a framework that supports the socialization through Augmented Reality (AR) based on telepresence. The aim is a low cost solution that enables users to communicate and interact remotely, experiencing the benefits of a face-to-face meeting. The authors explore computers graphics, spatial audio, and artificial vision to induce sensations of being physical in the presence of other people and exploit the potential activities that such frameworks enable. TV and phones are elderly common companion devices that should be complementarily used with emergent AR technologies to enhance and create the remote presence feeling, minimizing the loneliness. Inspired by Virtual Reality (VR) studies, one of the authors’ goals is to explore if VR presence measurement instruments are useful in the AR context by reviewing literature on the area.
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Using Gamification to Engage Higher-Order Thinking Skills
Social presence reflects the ability to establish and engage in purposeful relationships.
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Virtual Collaboration
The multiple representations of people’s presences in a shared online space and interaction.
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Engaging in Virtual Collaborative Writing: Issues, Obstacles, and Strategies
According to Rourke et al. (2001, p. 51), “social presence is the ability of learners to project their personal characteristics into the community of inquiry, thereby presenting themselves as ‘real people’.” Later on, Garrison (2006, p. 2) describes social presence “as the ability to project one’s self and establish personal and purposeful relationships.”
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Strategies to Support Teachers in Designing Culturally Responsive Curricula in Online Learning Environments
Experiencing a sense of presence involves feeling immersed in a computer-mediated environment. The concept of social presence has been associated with satisfaction, a reduced sense of isolation, and an increased sense of achievement in a virtual learning environment.
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Social Presence: Communications in Distance Dissertation Courses
The degree of awareness, feeling, perception, and reaction to another person in the CMC setting or online environment.
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Andragogical Leadership and Technology in the Future of Adult Education
The collaborative nature of the community and its activities in which the participants identify with the community, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships.
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Facilitation Strategies to Moderate Synchronous Virtual Discussion Groups in Teacher Training
Commonly referred to as the feeling of being “there” when immersed in a virtual environment.
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Field Research in Second Life: Strategies for Discussion Group Facilitation and Benefits of Participation
Identify with a community and develop interpersonal relationships. Copresence reflects the sense of being together in a virtual space.
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Pedagogical Values in Online and Blended Learning Environments in Higher Education
As a component of both the CoI model and the fully online learning community (FOLC) model, social presence is the socially mediated, interpersonal aspect of learning. Learners interact with the course material, each other, and with the instructor through social presence.
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Interactivity Redefined for the Social Web
The degree to which users perceive the physical existence of others and the perception of interaction with the other user(s).
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Influence of Soundscapes on Perception of Safety and Social Presence in an Open Public Space
The awareness of the presence of other people outside of the visual field. The feeling that one is sharing the space with other people.
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Student Perceptions and Pedagogical Applications of E-Learning Tools in Online Course
Social presence is originally defined as the “degree of salience of the other person in the (mediated) interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships” by Short, Williams, & Christie (1976). Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (1999) later defined it as the ability of participants in an online community to project their personal characteristics into the community, thereby presenting themselves to the other participants as ‘real people.’
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Teaching and Learning Online: An Examination of Effective Techniques, Practices, and Processes
“The degree of awareness of another person in an interaction and the consequent appreciation of an interpersonal relationship.” ( Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976 ).
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Social Connection Theory for Online Problem-Solving Groups
the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry.
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Cultivating Teaching Presence and Social Presence Through Multimedia Intervention
A sense of belonging and connection, cultivated and maintained by the instructor and students within a course.
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An Exploratory Study on the Effect of Coaching on Learner-Led Synchronous Discussion
The ability of learners to “project themselves socially and affectively into a Community of Inquiry” ( Rourke et al., 2001 , p. 2).
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“In the Office”: Communication in Virtual Environments
This characteristic once existed solely in face-to-face interactions where a receiver viewed facial expressions, the level of eye-contact, posture, etc. of the communicator to understand whether the receiver was invested in the conversation. Today, social presence is also relevant to online interactions and communication as senders and receivers transmit and interpret online exchanges including actual text, timing of textual transmissions, pauses, emoticons, and various abbreviations for physical responses (i.e. “Laugh Out Loud” or LOL).
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Instructor-Driven Strategies for Establishing and Sustaining Social Presence
The “degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships” (Short, Williams & Christie, p. 65).
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Outcomes of Computer Mentoring
The degree of salience of the other person in an interaction, and is a function of copresence. Decreased social presence leads to: (a) reduced other-awareness, (b) more uninhibited behavior, (c) less responsiveness to one another’s ideas, and (d) less public self-awareness.
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Active Learning and Student Engagement: Issues, Challenges, and Strategies for Online Teaching
Social presence is the degree to which online participants feel connected to each other.
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Maximizing the Social Dynamics, Work Processes, and Target Outcomes of Learning Groups Online: A Pre-“Research Design” Exploration
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Computer Mediated Negotiations and Deception
A feeling of realness in a communication setting that is the result of cues and the perceived distance between communicators (Short et al., 1976).
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Video-Based Discussion: Promoting Presence Through Interactions in Online Higher Education Courses
Presentation of personal characteristics that present participants in a Community of Inquiry as “real people.”
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Applying Online Instructor Presence Amidst Changing Times
The application of strategies that create a warm inviting tone and feelings of belongingness within a classroom.
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Flow, Motivation, Social Interaction, and Design Issues of Serious Games in Education
Social presence describes a person’s being, along with all of his or her feelings, thoughts, and relationships, in a highly participatory and interactive environment.
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New Technologies to Support Educational Inclusion
Tool used to measure the level of awareness of the other in communication environments mediated by computer.
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Instructional Immediacy Online
From the field of social psychology, the term includes both the degree of salience within an interpersonal relationship and the degree to which another is perceived as a “real” person in mediated communication. It implies social and affective involvement.
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Strategies for Meaningful Collaboration in Online Environments
The affective or interpersonal presence of the instructor and students in an online course.
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Fostering Social Presence on Virtual Learning Teams
One’s ability to signal their emotional, relational, and psychological presence in an online environment, and to access the reciprocal co-presence of others.
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The Emergence of Social Presence in Learning Communities
Concept defined by Garrison et al. (2000) as “the ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally in a community of inquiry.” Garrison (2006) expanded this notion, defining it as “the ability to project one’s self and establish purposeful relationships.”
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Learning from Social Collaboration: A Paradigm Shift in Evaluating Game-Based Learning
Sense of social presence refers to one’s perceived sense of togetherness with other persons within the collaborative situation.
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Considering Social Presence in the Designing of Ubiquitous Learning Environments
The perception that a person sees another as a real person in communication environments.
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The Community of Inquiry Framework, Online and Blended Learning, and the i2Flex Classroom Model
The ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally as ‘real’ people; the degree to which participants in mediated communication feel socially and emotionally connected.
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Introduction to Online Learning and the Adult Learner
has to do with the interaction between online students and represents the ability to perceive others in an online environment (Richardson, Maeda, Lv, & Caskurlu, 2017).
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Learning Together: Reducing Distance in Distance Education
Involves the appropriate sharing of personal and professional qualities to build a strong sense of community
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Online Learning: Demotivators and Motivators of Faculty Online Teaching Participation
Social presence for the purpose of this chapter is defined as the feeling of community that a student and instructor experience in online learning environments.
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Humanizing the Online Classroom: Lessons From the Pandemic Crisis
The ability to identify with a group, communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop relationships through individual personalities.
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Encouraging and Increasing Student Engagement and Participation in an Online Classroom
The extent to which an instructor interacts with students in online courses with the intention of providing feedback, responding to messages, providing examples, and participating in discussions.
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Building Global Citizens: Empathy, the Limits of Human Nature, and First Steps towards Social Equality through E-Learning Assignments
The indicators in an online space that show the presence of more than one person and show some indicators of their “state” and communications.
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“I'm Not Simply Dealing with Some Heartless Computer”: Videoconferencing as Personalized Online Learning in a Graduate Literacy Course
The supportive aspects of Community of Inquiry that foster the ability to feel connected within the course with others, willingness to take risks, and interaction with others in the course.
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Design and Evaluation of Mobile Learning from the Perspective of Cognitive Load Management
One feels a sense that others are present due to intimacy and immediacy factors in a learning environment.
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Group Decision Support Systems
The degree to which people establish warm and personal connection with each other in a communication setting. Changes in the level of social presence can affect group communication.
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Designing Online Learning Environments via Mobile Technologies
The individual’s sense of being real, present and connected with the other parties in learning environments.
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Prove You Are Not a Dog: Fostering Social Presence in Online Learning
The quality of being perceived as a real person when interacting through a communications medium.
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Online Strategic Discussion Forum: Models, Strategies, and Applications
The instructor’s ability to develop a sense of community among learners by engaging them in meaningful and active discussions about the applications of instructional content..
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Ensuring Presence in Online Learning Environments
The degree to which participants in computer-mediated communication feel affectively connected to one another.
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Social Presence
The degree to which a person is perceived as being real and being there in mediated communication.
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Bridging the Gap with Distance Education Students: Telepresence
Social presence is a community of inquiry model that students project their personal characteristics into the discussion as real people that the trust - building process is established at the social level so that content discussions can be open and substantive.
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Caring in the Zone: Fostering Relationships in Virtual Learning Communities
Ability of participants to appear as ‘real people,’ no matter what the medium for communication.
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Online Communication and Social Engagement
The degree to which people perceive others as real and perceives their interaction as a personal relationship.
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Does Second Life Mark the Beginning of a New Era of Online Shopping?: Exploring the Avatar-Based Shopping Experience in Virtual Worlds
Social presence is the users’ visual and emotional sense of being in the same space with other users, which is evoked by an experience of real-time communication activities or social interactions with other users in virtual worlds.
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Using Student Facilitation and Interactive Tools Within and Beyond the LMS: Towards Creating an Authentic Community of Inquiry
Social presence is one of the tree constructs within the community of inquiry framework (i.e., cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence) relates to the expression of emotion and personality and the ability of the learner to present him/herself as a “real person.”
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Factors Influencing Individual Construction of Knowledge in an Online Community of Learning and Inquiry Using Concept Maps
Computer mediated interactions and communications that reflect the personal and emotional connections of the individual to the group.
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Social Skills and Online Learning
The members of the community express themselves and participate in discourse and group activities, creating relationships with their peers.
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Engaging as an Online Adjunct Faculty: Whose Responsibility Is It Anyway?
In a digital environment, this is a concept of being able to represent oneself as a physical, real, live person to digital learners. Personality and image are a major component of this, and instructors can create social presence by posting informal pictures of hobbies, family, and other personal anecdotes to connect students with the person of the instructor rather than the functional role of the instructor.
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Online Communication and E-Learning
Social presence is defined as the degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationship. It is related to the degree to which a person is perceived as “real and present” in a given mediated communication.
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Student Perspectives on Distraction and Engagement in the Synchronous Remote Classroom
The efficient transmission of social cues and the perception of being with another in a synchronous remote learning environment. Key dimensions are intimacy, the feeling of closeness and belonging felt toward the instructors and students in a remote class; and immediacy, which is the sense of psychological distance between people.
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Designing and Developing Online and Distance Courses
The degree to which a person is perceived as ‘real’ in mediated communication.
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Investigation of Higher Education Student Perceptions of Social Presence and Motivations in Online Learning Environments
It can be defined as a degree of quality or condition of being in the same environment between two communicators coming together using a communication medium.
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Group Support Systems as Tools for HR Decision Making
The degree to which people establish warm and personal connection with each other in a communication setting. Changes in the level of social presence can affect group communication.
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Lectures and Discussions in Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments: The Effect of Communication Modality on Learner Satisfaction and Mental Effort
Experiencing a sense of presence involves feeling immersed in a computer-mediated environment. The concept of social presence has been associated with satisfaction and a sense of achievement in a virtual learning environment.
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The Pedagogy of Social Development in Online Learning
The degree to which people perceive others as real and perceive their interaction as a personal relationship.
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What We Know About Assessing Online Learning in Secondary Schools
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Destructive Creativity on the Social Web: Learning through Wikis in Higher Education
The perception that individuals are brought closer through the use of technology.
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Adaptable Learning Theory Framework for Technology-Enhanced Learning
The extent to which learners are able to present themselves and their characteristics within a community of inquiry.
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Knowledge Blogs in Firm Internal Use
The degree and type of mediated interpersonal contact and intimacy (Short et al., 1976).
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Blended Learning as a Transformative Design Approach
The ability to identify with a group, communicate purposefully, and develop inter-personal relationships.
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Understanding the Online Learner
The degree of awareness of another person in an interaction and the consequent appreciation of an interpersonal relationship” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002, p. 133).
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Building a Brand in Virtual Learning Spaces: Why Student Connections Matter
Social presence is the ability to project personal characteristics in an online environment.
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Perceptions of Presence and Community in Immersive Online Learning Environments
An element of the communities of inquiry model, referring to the ability for participants’ ability to view themselves and others as “real people.”
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Social Presence in an Online Learning Environment
A sense of connectedness to other participants in an online course.
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Serious Games as Positive Technologies
The degree of salience of the other person in a mediated environment and the consequent salience of their interpersonal interaction. An individual is present within a group if he/she is able to put his/her own intentions (presence) into practice and to understand the intentions of the other group members (social presence).
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Remote Teacher Preparation Amidst COVID-19: Creating Trauma-Informed Communities of Inquiry
The opportunities in a course for meaningful student-student and student-instructor interaction in online learning.
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Holistic Approaches to Student Support in Online Learning Environments
The extent to which students in an online learning environment feel connected, involved, and socially integrated, frequently made possible through contact with other students and teachers.
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Online Education and Flexible Learning Options: How Nontraditional Learners Are Meeting Their Educational Goals
The perception of themselves, the learner, other students, and the instructor as real and present in the classroom.
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Adapting Problem-Based Learning to an Online Learning Environment
The ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry.
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Interaction in Distance Learning
Individual’s ability to participate in an online community.
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Assessing the International Student Enrolment Strategies in Australian Universities: A Case Study During the COVID-19 Pandemic
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Hacking the Lecture: Transgressive Praxis and Presence Using Online Video
The perception that the other participants in online courses, although completely mediated through technology, are real people, fully present and engaged in a community of inquiry. An instructor’s social presence can lessen the psychological distance students might perceive in an online environment and encourage them to open up to the teacher and others.
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Interactivity Redefined for the Social Web
The degree to which users perceive the physical existence of others and the perception of interaction with the other user(s).
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Implementing Successful Online Learning Communities
The ability of learners to display their emotions and interact socially so that they are perceived as “real people” (Garrison 2007).
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Behave Yourself!: An Investigation of the Impact of Tutor Behaviour on the Student Experience of Online Distance-Based Learning
This refers to the degree to which an individual is perceived as ‘real’ in an online environment ( Garrison and Anderson, 2003 ).
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Dialogism in the Digital Age: Online Discussion Boards as Constructivist Platforms
The dialogues that students in an online learning environment have regarding subjects not related to course content. Such dialogues, though not immediately relevant to the learning outcomes, contribute to the community of inquiry (COI).
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Computer-Mediated Communication Learning Environments: The Social Dimension
Social presence was initially defined as the degree of other person salience in a mediated communication and the consequent salience of their interpersonal interactions. The term was soon after associated with the concept of media richness, according to which social presence is a quality of the communication medium itself. In more recent times, it has been redefined as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as “real” people, through the medium of communication being used.
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Intentionality in Blended Learning Design: Applying the Principles of Meaningful Learning, U-Learning, UDL, and CRT
Immersed in a digitally mediated environment together with a group of individuals and experiencing a sense of cohesion and community.
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Threaded Discussion
The perceived presence or salience of others in online discussion.
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Knowledge Sharing
The degree to which a knowledge-sharing medium, such as a network, facilitates an awareness of other people and the development of interpersonal relationships.
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Toward An Effective Virtual Learning Environment: From a Social Presence Perspective
A measure of feeling of community that learners experience in a virtual learning environment.
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Paradigm Shift toward Student Engagement in Technology Mediated Courses
Communication between instructor and student as well as effective student to student communication which enhances student engagement in the classroom.
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Opportunities of Virtual Learning Environments: Best Practices in Online Doctoral Programs
Part of CoI that focuses on PhD students investing themselves into the course and the material in order to bond with other students and to learn the discourse community nuances.
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Communities of Inquiry in Online Learning
The ability to identify with a group, communicate purposefully, and develop inter-personal relationships.
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Course Management Meets Social Networking in Moodle
Refers to a learner’s awareness of the presence and involvement of other learners in a course.
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Social Presence in an Online Learning Environment
A sense of intimacy and immediacy or the salience of the other in a mediated communication leading to increased enjoyment, involvement, task performance, and socio-emotional interaction. In other words, a student’s sense of belonging in a course or group and the ability to interact with others, although physical contact is not available.
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Training Bilingual Interpreters in Healthcare Settings: Student Perceptions of Online Learning
One of the three presences of the CoI framework. It refers to the extent to which learners feel affectively connected to others in an online environment.
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A Reimagined EdD: Participatory, Progressive Online Pedagogy
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Structuring Online Instruction by Dynamic Design, Delivery, and Assessment
Degree to which participants in online social interactions are perceived to be “real” by means of computer-mediated information exchanges.
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Meeting Challenges in Virtual Learning Environments With the Community of Inquiry Framework
Concerned with students investing themselves in the course to bond with other students; part of the CoI.
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Online Faculty Community: Support and Resources for Teaching Online
One of the three components in the Community of Inquiry framework; includes opportunities for learners to interact with one another on a personal level and to engage in purposeful discussion about the content; demonstration of being a “real person” behind the text.
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Interaction in Online Learning Environments: A View From Theory to Practice
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Learning to Teach Online: Negotiating Issues of Platform, Pedagogy, and Professional Development
The degree of awareness of another person in an interaction and the consequent appreciation of an interpersonal relationship” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002 AU51: The in-text citation "Tu & McIsaac, 2002" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , p. 133).
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Social Presence in Distance Learning
Theoretical construct created to help understand the effects of media on communications experiences. Social presence has been used to understand interactions between people in online communications experiences.
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Designing and Implementing a Student-Centered Online Graduate Program: A Case Study in a College of Education
When students feel like they belong in an online class and that their contributions are valued.
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Computer Mediated Negotiations and Deception
A feeling of realness in a communication setting that is the result of cues and the perceived distance between communicators (Short et al., 1976).
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Designing Quality Classes That Meet the Needs of Nontraditional Learners
The perception of themselves, the learner, other students, and the instructor as real and present in the classroom.
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Hybrid Courses for Preparing Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Challenges, Successes, and Lessons Learned
Relates to how individuals engage with the online community and the development of interpersonal relationships in that community.
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Moving Beyond Trial and Error: Exploring Case Studies of Professional Development Models in K–12 Blended Learning
A level of connectedness, including sharing and interaction, among instructors and learners that can offer a pathway for cultivating meaningful learning experiences.
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Working Collaboratively on the Digital Global Frontier
“The ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people though the medium of communication being used” (Garrison et al., 2000, p. 94).
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Using Communities of Inquiry Online to Perform Tasks of Higher Order Learning
The ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry.
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