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What is Social Capital

Handbook of Research on Technologies for Improving the 21st Century Workforce: Tools for Lifelong Learning
The collection of qualities and practices among relationships that build trust and foster co-operation and mutual satisfaction.
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Online Graduate Programs and Intellectual Isolation: Fostering Technology-Mediated Interprofessional Learning Communities
Kathleen M. Kevany (Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Canada), Elizabeth Lange (St. Francis Xavier University, Canada), Chris Cocek (St. Francis Xavier University, Canada), and Catherine Baillie Abidi (St. Francis Xavier University, Canada)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2181-7.ch020
Abstract
With more flexibility in higher education, the authors argue that online graduate programs have a significant but unrecognized potential for interprofessional learning. Interprofessional learning is an emerging trend that is considered necessary to address the “wicked problems” in our society that defy simple solutions, disciplinary silos, and cause/effect thinking. This chapter examines the challenges of: fostering good adult education pedagogy in an online context, encouraging peer collaboration and an intellectual culture in an online, self-directed graduate program, and creating the conditions for interprofessional learning.
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Building Stronger Connections Among Students, Families, and Schools to Promote School Safety
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Maintaining a Socially Just Classroom: Ethical Decision-Making for Student Engagement as a Positive Outcome
Refers to the network of relationships and social connections that provide additional opportunities or resources available for individuals who are members of the group. It provides students with access to resources by way of whom they already know in a particular class or by their familiarity with the teacher and the school.
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Social Creativity
A term introduced into academic and policy debates in the 1990s. It represents a complex multidimensional concept, defined by the OECD as “networks together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate co-operation within or among groups” ( OECD, 2001 , p. 41).
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Youth Participation and Representation in Community Governance at Cato Manor Township, Durban
Is a resource that comprises of social networks and relationships based on societal or community shared values and norms.
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Othermothering to Belongingness for HBCU College Student Success
A resource that reflects community members with similar values and shared norms interacting to create cohesion.
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Problems Preventing Growth of Small Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of a Few Small Entrepreneurs in Botswana Sub-Urban Areas
Social capital is the sum of quality and quantity of society’s social connections. Social capital is a prerequisite for developing the society economically and the development to be sustainable. It is the factor that binds society to work together for the development of the society as a whole ( http://www.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTOSOCIALDEVELOP AU94: URL Validation failed because the page http://www.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTOSOCIALDEVELOP does not exist (HTTP error 404). ).
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A New Perspective in Competitiveness for Business Education: Communities of Practice – The Crystal Palace
Draws special emphasis on mutual trust and collaboration. It is the sum of potential and actual resources entrenched and derived from the network of relationships developed by an individual and social unit.
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Social Capital, Social Networks, and the Social Web: The Case of Virtual Volunteering
The value (trust, reciprocity, social and emotional support) that is generated from participation in formal and informal social network relationships.
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Social Capital and the Gendering of Differential IT Use
Intangible value aggregated from social and organizational networks which can result in social and economic benefits to individuals and communities.
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The Roles of Digital Literacy in Social Life of Youth
Quality of group membership. Measured by for example, the frequency of face-to-face interactions with close friends, the number of offline acquaintances, sense of loneliness or lack thereof, community involvement, civic and political participation, and interpersonal trust.
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The Unnoticed Side of Remittance Transportation: Women Encounters With Remittance Transporters-Omalayisha
This represents tangible and intangible resources that women remitters and malayishas draw from within the context of remittance transportation.
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The Figmentum Project: Appropriating Information and Communication Technologies to Animate Our Urban Fabric
The capital, actual and potential, that is embedded in social relationships and networks. Pierre Bourdieu defines social capital as “the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalised relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition” (1986, p. 243).
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Towards Blended Learning Designs Fostering Adults' Social Capital: What Do Empirical Findings Reveal?
Strong or weak relationships among people in a given community that can provide access to new information, resources, and support.
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Andragogy or Pedagogy as a Means to Improve the Workforce?
“Mainly a public good shared by a group and produced rather indirectly by investments of time and effort. It is related to mutual trust among individuals...Work organizations are increasingly considered to be key sources of social capital, emphasizing the importance of the social networks, partnerships, collaboration and interaction, and knowledge sharing they provide” (Kessels & Poell, 2004, p. 151).
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Trust in Networks and Clusters
Refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. Social capital is the glue that holds them together.
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Encountering New Risks in Educating Children in the Contemporary Society: The Risk of Cyberbullying
A form of capital that builds on, the relationship between the child and the parents, attention given by and the importance placed by parents on the child’s intellectual growth.
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Overcoming Barriers
Social capital is a positive product of human interaction. The positive outcome may be tangible or intangible and may include useful information, innovative ideas, and future opportunities. In business terms, social capital is the contribution to an organization's success that can be attributed to personal relationships and networks, both within the organization and outside of it. The term social capital is also sometimes used to describe the personal relationships within a company that help build trust and respect among employees, leading to enhanced company performance (Kenton, 2019).
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An Analysis of the Socio-Technical Gap in Social Networking Sites
“The sum of the resources, actual or virtual, that accrue to an individual or group by virtue of possessing a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and relationship.” (Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992, p119)
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Professional Learning and Change Through Social Networks and Social Capital
The information, ideas, and resources available to an individual through the others with whom they have social relationships.
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How Do Social Media Impact Interpersonal Communication Competence?: A Uses and Gratifications Approach
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The Moderating Effect of Family Management on R&D Productivity in Privately Held Firms
Intangible element inherent to family firms that allow the establishment of long-standing and trustful relationships with the immediate environment.
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HR Portals as Tools for Relational Resources Management
The connections at an organizational level, within different individuals and parts of the organization, and at interorganizational level and their ability to create and share knowledge.
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Importance of Digital Literacy and Hindrance Brought About by Digital Divide
The relationship between members of a society who work together to function effectively for the benefit of the society.
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Factors Affecting Sustainable Higher Educational Partnerships
The collective value of human networks in a society, group or partnership that is connected with a common goal, demographic or geographic sense.
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Responding to the Modern Culture of Education: Providing a New Structure
The inclusion of democratic ideals in classroom practices to encourage positive social connections among students.
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Information Environments of Middle Managers in Higher Education
The social relations between individuals in the organization lay the foundation for the social capital of the organization.
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Black African Entrepreneurship in the UK
Refers to the connections within and between social networks from which individuals obtain economic value.
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Navigating Hostile Environments: Refugees' Experiences in Higher Education Institutions in Western Countries
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An Event-Driven Community in Washington, DC: Forces That Influence Participation
Refers to connections among individuals to form social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.
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Managing Organizational Knowledge in the Age of Social Computing
The resources available through and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit within an organization ( Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998 ).
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Impact of Technological Innovations and Online Social Capital on Education
Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding with similar people, and bridging between diverse people with norms of reciprocity.
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Civic Deliberations in COVID-19 and Beyond
Bandura’s notion of the ways in which individuals gain an understanding of the network of communities around them through learning.
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The Digital Divide and the Emerging Virtual Therapeutic System
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Family Literacy Practices in Scotland and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Is a social science concept focused on the value of social networks that bond similar people and bridge between diverse people. This network of relationships establishes norms of reciprocity in a particular society that have the potential to secure benefits and invent solutions to problems.
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Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation: A Conceptual Distinction
Refers to the notion that social networks have value and that contributes to increase the productivity of individuals and contributes to socio-economic development.
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Economic Development Alliances
The added potential for economic growth that stems from a population’s propensity to form societies, associations and organizations for business, civic, and recreational purposes.
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Investigating the Dynamics of Trust in Social Capital on Social Media Platforms
Social capital refers to the collective value derived from social networks, relationships, and interactions within a community or society or in global environment through digital media. It encompasses the resources, benefits, and advantages that individuals or groups can access and leverage through their social connections and social ties.
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Social Capital and the Practice Lens Approach
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The Pivotal Role of Human Resource Management in Overcoming Employee Fear in Organizations of the Tourism Industry in Vietnam
Is a system of affiliations amongst individuals who resides and work in a specific community and empowering them to effectively function.
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Organizational Learning as a Social Process: A Social Capital and Network Approach
Aggregates of actual and potential resources embedded in social relationships and interactions.
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Web 2.0 Technologies: Social Software Applied to Higher Education and Adult Learning
A cross-disciplinary concept referring to the benefits of social networks and connections. Social capital is constructed and maintained in the interaction between individuals or groups. Social networks promote different types of social capital: bonding –referring to horizontal ties between individuals-, bridging – referring to ties that cut across different communities- or linking –referring to vertical ties.
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Fostering Sustainability and Resilience: Unravelling the Value of Community-Based Tourism in Ziro Valley, Arunachal Pradesh
The collective value derived from the social networks, relationships, trust, and reciprocity within a community or society, which can facilitate cooperation, collaboration, and mutual support among its members.
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A New Framework for Preparing Indonesian Graduates for Employability: A Capitals-Based Approach
Consists of networks and interpersonal connections that aid in mobilizing graduates' pre-existing human capital and advancing them into the labor market. Graduates' access to, understanding of, and ability to take advantage of job prospects can be shaped and made more accessible by social capital.
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Social Capital Theory
Resources found in social relations that would benefit individuals and communities in the form of support, solidarity, access to information and influence.
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The Role of Social Media in Employee Knowledge Sharing
The sum of the resources that are available to an individual by virtue of their social networks, which may be personal or professional in nature.
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Social Media and Gender Issues
The making of connections with potential “pay off.”
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Higher Education Pedagogy Revisited: Impacting Political Science College Students' Active Learning, Opinion Development, and Participation
A form of economic, political and social capital in which cooperation and services are accomplished for the common good.
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The New Generation of Knowledge Management for the Web 2.0 Age: KM 2.0
The set of resources embedded within the relationships among actors within a network.
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The Challenges of Smart Specialization Strategies and the Role of Entrepreneurial Universities: A New Competitive Paradigm
Refers to the community value of the social networks and the patterns of reciprocity that come up from these networks to do things for each other that can leverage initiatives or projects.
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Hybrid Synergy for Virtual Knowledge Working
Refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society—it is the glue that holds them together (The World Bank).
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Contribution of Social Capital to Innovation: The Mediating Role of Knowledge Embedded in Social Networks
The sum of the actual and/or potential, virtual resources (including emotional and affective support), which are linked to the possession of a durable network of institutionalized or informal relationships of mutual acquaintance or recognition.
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Exploring Communication Practices of Influencers on Commerce-Focused Social Media: Whatnot
An intangible resource based on a societies’ social structures that lends power and legitimacy to an individual or organization based on access to resources (e.g., knowledge, expertise, relationships, and respect).
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The Digital Divide and Social Equity
The degree to which individuals in a society collaborate and cooperate, through such mechanisms as networks, to achieve mutual benefits (Putnam, 2000).
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Supporting Participation in Online Social Networks
Is a form of economic and cultural capital derived from interpersonal relationships, institutions, and other social assets of a society or group of individuals.
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Public-Private Partnerships (P3s) between Businesses and Adult Education Providers
Networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit and take an investment of time and effort to establish and sustain.
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Community College Student Preferences for Support When Classes Go Online: Does Techno-Capital Shape Student Decisions?
Refers to a stock of resources that individuals acquire through their social connections, which generates personal benefits (e.g., social, economic, informational, etc.). Like other forms of capital, social capital is a resource that is cultivated and transmitted through the socialization process, and often passed down generationally.
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Difficult Conversations: How to Confront the Elephant in the Room
The power and influence a person has due to their connections and reputation.
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Organizational Ecosystems: Innovation and Social Capital Dimensions
The value of networks and social relationships of an organization.
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Teleworking and the
features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit (Putnam).
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Enhancing Workplaces with Constructive Online Recreation
Social closeness, mutual knowledge, and cohesion that are a product of a wide assortment of different kinds of informal, volunteer, and partially-structured social interactions.
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ICT as an Acculturative Agent and Its Role in the Tourism Context: Introduction, Acculturation Theory, Progress of the Acculturation Theory in Extant Literature
Summary of actual or virtual resources added to the individual or society through having a solid network.
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Social Capital as a Factor of Success in Mexican Cooperatives: Case – Cooperativa “Las Chiquihuitecas” Producer of Grana Cochinilla
It is an economic and social concept that deals with the relationships and connections between people and / or organizations that coexist with each other, generating economic benefits or competitive advantages that are used for the growth of those involved. Some of the elements considered are: reciprocity, trust, solidarity, cooperation, communication, cohesion and empowerment.
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The Shared Work of Learning: Lifting Educational Achievement Through Collaboration
The process of teacher professional development from a viewpoint recognizing the intersection of the individual, cognitive and social aspects of teacher learning; the resources teachers can access through peer collaboration to support their ongoing learning.
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Social Capital and Social Identity: Friendship and Kinship Connections as a Source of Social Capital
Connections amongst individuals in the form of social networks, norms, and reciprocity.
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Digital Social Networks From a Social Capital Perspective
Denotes goodwill, fellowship, help and sympathy among connections in a social network that yields benefits such as support, solidarity, and access to resource.
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The Current State and Future of E-Participation Research
Relational resources having to do with connections among individuals that form networks of civic engagement, and the resulting norms of reciprocity and trust arising from the networks.
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A Corporate Social Capital View on E-HRM Implementation
The set of resources, tangible or virtual, that accrue to an actor through the actor’s social relationships, facilitating the attainment of goals. In other words, social capital is the positive outcome of a social network.
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Towards Enhancing Migrant Social Entrepreneurship Through Social Capital in Durban, South Africa
Is a term used to reflect the norms, values, and networks as well as formal or informal relationship.
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Tourism Networks and Clusters
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. Social capital is the glue that holds them together.
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Multiple Perspectives for Poverty Reduction
A network of tangible and intangible links or relationships that coexists with other networks such as norms and values to enable cooperation in a group, community or society.
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Cities Really Smart and Inclusive: Possibilities and Limits for Social Inclusion and Participation
Assets and produced value, within networks, and by, networks, policies, citizens and services. It is a producer and an outcome of social, political, and cultural engagement and interactions.
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Building on Trust in a Complex World: Educational Research and Technology
“The Web of collaborative relationships between citizens that facilitate resolution of collective action problemsand, “those voluntary means and processes developed within civil society which promote development for the collective whole.”
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Learning Together: Reducing Distance in Distance Education
The collection of qualities and practices among relationships that build trust and foster co-operation and mutual satisfaction
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Dynamic Information Systems in Higher Education
The social relations between individuals in the organization establish the basis of the social capital of the organization.
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The “Private Face” of Nonprofits: Legal and Ethical Human Resource Practices
The networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively.
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The Limits of Anytime, Anywhere Customer Support
Social capital refers generally to the organized relationships between people that lead them to value their connection to one another.
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The Role of Social Capital in Higher Education Institutions
The networks of relationships among persons, firms, and institutions in a society, together with associated norms of behavior, trust, and cooperation that enable a society to function effectively.
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Social Networks through an Entrepreneurial Mindset
The degree to which a community or society collaborates and cooperates (through such mechanisms as networks, shared trust, norms and values) to achieve mutual benefits.
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Knowledge Management in Charities
That which arises from collegial respect to form the basis for collaborative work (Vuong & Staples, 2008).
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The Contribution of Part-Time Work Experience to Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Graduate Employability
A component of employability and is demonstrated through one’s social network and bonding relationships with others.
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Creating an Analytical Lens for Understanding Digital Networks in Urban South Africa
Assets used by individuals in the absence of financial and monetary capital to assist in accessing resources. Examples include familial relationships, social networks and clubs/societies.
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Understanding Knowledge Networks Through Social Network Analysis
The term social capital was originally introduced by social economists and it attempts to link social relationships to the creation of economic substance. In essence, social capital deals with the belief that “social relationships have value” (Putnam, cited in Smedlund, 2008 , p. 65). According to the literature, two general views regarding social capital exist ( Bakker et al., 2006 ). One belief declares mere social relations to be social capital, where the size of one’s social capital is measured by the number of ties one maintains. Burt (cited in Edelman et al., 2005 ) describes social capital as “know-who” and maintains it is about “everyone you now know, everyone you knew and everyone who knows you even though you do not know them” (p. 161). In addition, Smedlund (2008) maintains that social capital can be seen as “a collective good” located in the relations between people rather than in the people themselves (p. 65). The fundamental aspect of social capital reflects the need for individuals to connect with others in order to look for resources that they do not have at their own disposal ( Lesser & Prusak, 1999 ). Thus, in order to possess social capital, one has to be connected to others, and it is those others, who are the actual source of one’s advantage (Portes cited in Edelman et al., 2005 ). Nahapiet and Ghosal (cited in Järvenpää & Immonen, 2004 ) maintain that social capital has three dimensions namely: structural (signifying network ties and relationships, as well as the ease with which one can join and integrate into a network), cognitive (referring to a shared language and history) and relational (implying trust and norms, as well as responsibilities within a network). These dimensions enhance the enthusiasm and ability of organisations to exchange and transfer knowledge, therefore increasing their intellectual capital ( Widén-Wulff & Ginman, 2004 ; Järvenpää & Immonen, 2004 ).
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Assessing the Social Network Health of Virtual Communities
Social attributes of a group which are of value to the group or to an individual within the group.
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Community Informatics
Robert Putnam, a key writer on social capital, defines social capital as the ‘connections among individuals—social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them’ as a resource that can be drawn upon the rebuilding or strengthening of communities. (Putnam 1995). From a community informatics perspective, social capital should also be defined as a community resource that is developed in partnering, rather than exploitative relationships with communities.
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A Review of Social and Intellectual Capital From the Lens of Corporate Social Responsibility
In financial terms, social capital basically comprises the value of social relationships and networks that complement the economic capital for economic growth of an organization.
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Contributions of Social Capital Theory to HRM
Structure, content, and mechanisms of social relations; may have positive and negative outcomes. It explains the nature of social entrepreneurship and nonpecuniary mechanisms of performance, career development, and organizational sustainability.
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Relationship Marketing on Public Social Software Platforms in the Airport Industry: The Case of Facebook
Maintenance of network ties with other individuals, groups or organizations with the purpose of leveraging the social support of others to attain ones own goals. Social capital is most commonly divided in bonding social capital (strong network ties with family and close friends) and bridging social capital (weak networks ties governed by norms of reciprocity).
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If We Build It, Will They Come?: An Appreciation of the Microfoundations of E-Government
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together. Source: World Bank, 2011.
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Support for Rural Entrepreneurs by Universidad EAN: Impacta Rural Modality of the EAN Impacta Program
The networks, norms, and trust that facilitate cooperation and coordination among individuals and groups in a community or society.
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Women's Journeys in Academia: Plan B as Childless and Childfree Women in Higher Education
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Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The Essence of Sustainable, Smart, and Inclusive Economies
Social capital is determinant in evolving the entrepreneurial capacity. The social capital construct emphasizes the significance of networks of robust, converging personal relationships matured over time that afford the basis for trust, cooperation, and collective action in social communities. Social capital is the accumulation of resources that are due to an individual or a group as a result of retaining a durable network of institutionalized interactions of mutual affiliation and appreciation. Social capital is also considered as a set of responsibilities, opportunities, and mutually developed norms and sanctions that develop from previous social collaborations. Social capital entails the access to and use of resources embedded in social networks that can be organized through intentional endeavor. There are various sources of social capital, especially for entrepreneurs, such as intentional connections, affinity, and community ties.
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Education, Social Capital, Physical, and Psychological Access to Healthcare Among Female Migrants in Informal Settlements in Accra City, Ghana
Social networks of family members, friends and close associates whose interventions and support usually facilitate achievements in many areas of life and living.
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Family-Teacher Relationships: To What Extent Do Cultural and Linguistic Capital Matter?
Here, it is used to mean an asset that a person or people can use as a resource towards the child’s welfare, including education. This includes institutions, relationships and practices that influence both the quality and quantity of social interactions.
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The Role of Emotional Capital in Organisational KM
‘Features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit’ ( Putnam, 1993 ).
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The Impact of Communications Technology on Trust
The accumulated level of goodwill that exists within a social group or community, realized through shared norms and values that afford cooperation.
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A Social Capital Perspective on Collaboration and Web 2.0
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Leveraging Online Communities for Building Social Capital in University Libraries: A Case Study of Fudan University Medical Library
It is a sort of capital consisting of shared values or recourses, both tangible and intangible, allowing people to harmoniously live or work together (or bond together), in other words, social relationships in a community or society.
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Blended Learning towards Social Capital in Higher Education
Connections within and between social networks, highlighting the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to get collective or economic results.
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Measuring Transformational Use of ICTs at Regional Level
“By making connections with one another, and keeping them going over time, people are able to work together to achieve things that they either could not achieve by themselves, or could only achieve with great difficulty. People connect through a series of networks and they tend to share common values with other members of these networks; to the extent that these networks constitute a resource, they can be seen as forming a kind of capital” (Field, 2003, p.5).
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Humanizing and Linguistically Responsive Pedagogy: Examining How Teachers Engage ELL Knowledge, Interests, and Struggles in Social Studies Classrooms
The relationships, knowledge, skills, dispositions, actions, and/or privileges that afford someone the power to produce or reproduce inequitable social relationships or change their social relationships.
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A School Model for Developing Access to Higher Education for African American: Social Capital and School Choice
How a student acquires their knowledge of information and resources from individuals who are experienced in areas of the student’s interest. In this case, how students learn about college, the application process, and how to make informed postsecondary decisions.
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Preparing PhD Graduates in Australia for the World of Work
Social and professional relationships that aid in developing employability by bonding, bridging, and linking networks.
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Understanding Entrepreneurial University: A Framework for Emerging Economies
Refers to the community value of the social networks and the patterns of reciprocity that come up from these networks to do things for each other that can leverage initiatives or projects.
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Social Capital and Innovation Performance in Firms
Value of networks and social relationships in an organization or firm.
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Measuring Social Capital: The Case of the Technium Network in Wales
Networks of social relationships among people in a society or organization.
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Improving Teacher Professional Learning: Inquiry Cycles and the Whole Teacher
The multifaceted relationships that teachers have within and across grade-level and subject-matter teams in a school or district.
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Talent Management and Sustained Competitive Advantage
The social relationships, networks, shared norms, and values that catalyze cooperation within or among groups for the economic growth of an organization.
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Mentoring, Partnering, and Follow-Through: TRIO Programs Provide a Path Through the Wilderness
Exposure, experiences, and/or personal connections in one’s sphere of influence that provide additional advantages and opportunities over others.
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HR Portal: A Tool for Contingent and Individualized HRM
The connections at organizational level, within different individuals and parts of the organization, and at inter- organizational level and their ability to create and share knowledge.
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Social Capital and Innovation: A Theoretical Perspective
Comprises the value of social relationships and networks of an organization.
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Promoting Digital Competences through Social Software: A Case Study at the Rovira i Virgili University
A cross-disciplinary concept referring to the benefits of social networks and connections. Social capital is constructed and maintained in the interaction between individuals or groups. Social networks promote different types of social capital: bonding –referring to horizontal ties between individuals-, bridging – referring to ties that cut across different communities- or linking –referring to vertical ties.
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Toward Interdisciplinary Theoretical Frameworks for Educating Secondary School Immigrant Students
Resources one gains through networking with other social members in society, which also demonstrates how a person is conceptualized socially within the structural context.
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Tapping Social Capital through E-Mentoring: An Alternative Approach to Women's Career Development
Is an intangible asset which promotes individuals’ knowledge and skill acquisition through a Web of networks established within social structures.
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Applying Bourdieu to eBay's Success and Socio-Technical Design
Recent interest in the term social capital has its origins in the writings of Pierre Bourdieu (Schuller, Baron & Field, 2000). Bourdieu’s term ‘social capital’ was best articulated in his chapter ‘Forms of capital’ in 1983 (op. cit.), having remained often elusive and marginal in other works (op. cit.). The concept was defined as: “the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance or recognition” (Bourdieu cited Portes, 1998, p. 3). Bourdieu’s social capital focuses on the benefits accrued by individuals through participation in groups, including the purposive construction of sociability for social capital advantages (Portes, 1998). Actors, through social capital, can also gain access to economic capital (loans, markets) and cultural capital (through experts or others with cultural capital). James Coleman is also associated with the concept of ‘social capital’, and is best known for using the term in educational contexts (Schuller, Baron & Field, 2000). He also defines it in terms of a set of resources which facilitate the actions of actors. The resources comprise of entities which have as part of them some elements of social structures, but the resources facilitate acting within the structure. Coleman sees social relations as providing social capital resources through creating information channels, establishing obligations and social norms (op. cit). Robert Putnam’s work on social capital is currently the most cited across a range of disciplines and fields (op. cit). In Bowling Alone, a book that charted the decline in community organisations and civic engagement in the US, Putnam suggested that the core of social capital theory was that social networks have a value, with social contacts affecting group and individual productivity (Putnam, 2000). Putnam talks of norms of generalised reciprocity—that you do someone a favour and expect that someone else will do something for you later on. Schuller, Baron and Field (2000) also point out Putnam’s definition of social capital as involving aspects of social life—trust, norms and networks—which help people pursue joint objectives and act more effectively together. Putnam (2000) suggests computer mediated communication (CMC) can support dense, large and fluid groups across the boundaries of geography and organisations, and allow for networks based on shared interests instead of just shared space. He talks of CMC increasing people’s ‘intellectual capital’ as information is capable of being shared at virtually zero cost. But he also argues that a lack of social cues means that computer-based groups are generally worse at trust and reciprocity and may indulge in ‘flaming’ and disinhibited behaviour.
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Boosting Entrepreneurism as a Product of Urban Creativity and Governance: The Almada Idea Laboratory Project
Degree of confidence that the elements of one community reveal between each other with real impact in their internal cohesion.
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Understanding Family Firm Profitability Heterogeneity: Differences Within Family Managed Firms and the Interaction Effect of Innovative Effort
Intrinsic aspect of family firms that enables them to establish long-standing, fruitful, and quality relationships with potential stakeholders.
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The Roles of Social Networks and Communities in Open Education Programs
Creating and maintaining a network of friends, business, and personal acquaintances.
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Collaboration in the Service of Knowledge Co-Creation for Environmental Outcomes, Science and Public Policy
Institutions, relationships, attitudes and values that govern interactions among people and contribute to economic and social development (Grootdert and van Bastelaer, 2002).
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Modernization and Accountability in the Social Economy: A Systematic Review
It can be analyzed from two perspectives: accounting and sociology. As an accounting term, the share capital is the value of the assets or the money with which the members contribute to a company without right of return. Social capital implies the sociability of a human group, with the aspects that allow collaboration and its use. Sociologists emphasize that social capital is formed by social networks, by mutual trust and by effective norms, concepts that are not easy to define and which may vary depending on the analyst's point of view.
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Socio-Ecological Literacy: Collaboration as a Learning Tool for Society Transformation
A generation of relationships with other entities, build partnerships and networks usually a result of a collaborative process (cf. Gruber, 1994 )
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2007 Leadership and Human Resources Training in Rwanda
Social, economic, and political interactions oriented towards positive outcomes for the larger society. These interactions make it possible for increasing numbers of people to have basic/adequate health, education, employment, housing, and general welfare needs met.
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